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Sunday, July 31, 2022

May Allah bless the Mankind in the New Islamic Year 1444 AH

30th July 2022 marks the beginning of the new Islamic year 1444 AH.  We pray to Allah that this new year brings peace and blessing to the entire mankind all over the world. May peace prevails and all those struggling for peace and independence may succeed.  May this new year be the best year for the entire mankind and all dark shadows be lifted from over us and give way to bright sunshine to spread happiness everywhere. Ameen

For those not familiar with the Islamic Calander, let us add a few lines for their information:
  • Unlike the Gregorian Calander that is based on the movement of the sun and each new day begins with the dawn of the sun, the Islamic Calander is based on the movement of the moon and each Islamic month commences with the sighting of the new moon and each day commences after the sunset.
  • The Gregorian Year is suffixed with letters CE / AD, while the Islamic Year is suffixed AH (After Hijrah) or (Latin: Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijrah").
  • The Hijrah commences with the migration of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in 622 CE from Makkah to Medinah.
  • The Islamic calendar is called The Hijri calendar (Arabic: ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ, Romanized: al-taqwīm al-hijrī), consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
  • Since each month commences with the sighting of the new moon,thus each month can have 29 or 30 days depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions. 
  • The Hijrah or the Islam Year 1444 AH commences as per the Gregorian calendar from approximately 30 July 2022 to 18 July 2023.
In the 35th verse of Surah 9 At Tauba, Allah mentions about the division of the entire year in 12 months:
اِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُوۡرِ عِنۡدَ اللّٰهِ اثۡنَا عَشَرَ شَهۡرًا فِىۡ كِتٰبِ اللّٰهِ يَوۡمَ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضَ مِنۡهَاۤ اَرۡبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ​ ؕ ذٰ لِكَ الدِّيۡنُ الۡقَيِّمُ ۙ فَلَا تَظۡلِمُوۡا فِيۡهِنَّ اَنۡفُسَكُمۡ​ ؕ وَقَاتِلُوا الۡمُشۡرِكِيۡنَ كَآفَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُوۡنَكُمۡ كَآفَّةً​  ؕ وَاعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَ الۡمُتَّقِيۡنَ‏ 
[9:36] Surely the reckoning of months, in the sight of Allah, is twelve months, laid down in Allah's decree on the day when He created the heavens and the earth; and out of these months four are sacred. That is the true ordainment. Do not, therefore, wrong yourselves, with respect to these months. And fight all together against those who associate others with Allah in His Divinity in the manner that they fight against you all together,36 and know well that Allah is with the God-fearing.
This means that ever since Allah created the sun, the moon and the earth, the new moon takes place only once in a month; thus the year has always been of twelve months.

The formal commencement of numbered Hijrah Calendar:
In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it. Thus, according to Islamic tradition, Abraha, governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia), attempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants. The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the Year of the Elephant, during which Muhammad was born (sura al-Fil). Most equate this to the year 570 CE, but a minority use 571 CE.

The first ten years of the Hijra were not numbered, but were named after events in the life of Muhammad according to Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī:[27]
  • The year of permission.
  • The year of the order of fighting.
  • The year of the trial.
  • The year of congratulation on marriage.
  • The year of the earthquake.
  • The year of enquiring.
  • The year of gaining victory.
  • The year of equality.
  • The year of exemption.
  • The year of farewell.
In c. 638 (17 AH), Abu Musa, one of the officials of the Caliph Umar (r. 634–644) in Basrah, complained about the absence of any years on the correspondence he received from Umar, making it difficult for him to determine which instructions were most recent. This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce an era for Muslims. After debating the issue with his counsellors, he decided that the first year should be the year of Muhammad's arrival at Medina (known as Yathrib, before Muhammad's arrival).[28] Uthman ibn Affan then suggested that the months begin with Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time. The years of the Islamic calendar thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad's arrival at the city of Medina, even though the actual emigration took place in Safar and Rabi' I of the intercalated calendar, two months before the commencement of Muharram in the new fixed calendar.[2] Because of the Hijra, the calendar was named the Hijri calendar.

The 12  Islamic Months are named as under{
  • Muharram " ٱلْمُحَرَّم " – A sacred month, so called because battle and all kinds of fighting are forbidden (ḥarām) during this month. Muharram includes Ashura, the tenth day.
  • Safar " صَفَر " – Supposedly named this because pre-Islamic Arab houses were empty this time of year while their occupants gathered food.
  • Rabi Al-Awwal " رَبِيع ٱلْأَوَّل " – The month of Spring - Also means to graze, because cattle were grazed during this month. Also a very holy month of celebration for many Muslims, as it was the month the Prophet Muhammad was born.
  • Rabi Al-Thani " رَبِيع ٱلثَّانِي‎ " -  the second spring, the last spring
  • Jamada Al-Awwal " جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأُولَىٰ‎ " - Often considered the pre-Islamic summer. Jumādā may also be related to a verb meaning "to freeze" and another account relates that water would freeze during this time of year.
  • Jamada Al-Thani " جُمَادَىٰ ٱلثَّانِيَة‎ " - the second of parched land, the last of parched land
  • Rajab  " رَجَب‎ " – A Sacred Month: This is the second sacred month in which fighting is forbidden. Rajab may also be related to a verb meaning "to remove", so called because pre-Islamic Arabs would remove the heads of their spears and refrain from fighting.
  • Sha’ban  " شَعْبَان‎ " – The Harbinger of the month of Ramadan : Marked the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water. Sha‘bān may also be related to a verb meaning "to be in between two things". Another account relates that it was called thus because the month lies between Rajab and Ramadan.
  • Ramadan  " رَمَضَان‎ " – The Month of Fasting (The burning heat):  Burning is related to fasting as with an empty stomach one's worldly desire will burn. Supposedly so called because of high temperatures caused by the excessive heat of the sun. Ramaḍān is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar. During this time, Muslims must fast and not do anything sinful from pre-dawn until sunset and should give charity to the poor and needy.
  • Shawwal  " شَوَّال‎ " – The Month of Reward : Female camels would normally be in calf at this time of year and raise their tails. At the first day of this month, the Eid al-Fitr, "Festival of Breaking the Fast" begins, marking the end of fasting and the end of Ramadhan.
  • Dhul Qadah  " ذُو ٱلْقَعْدَة‎ " – A Sacred Month: This is a holy month during which war is banned. People are allowed to defend themselves if attacked.
  • Dhul Hijjah  " ذُو ٱلْحِجَّة " – The 10 Best Days (The Month of Hajj): During this month Muslim pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Day of Arafah takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the "Festival of the Sacrifice", begins on the tenth day and ends on the thirteenth, and this is a fourth holy month during which war is banned.
May Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى‎) help us understand Qur'ān and follow the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, which is embodiment of commandments of Allah contained in the Qur'ān. May Allah help us to be like the ones He loves and let our lives be lived helping others and not making others life miserable or unlivable. May all our wrong doings, whether intentional or unintentional, be forgiven before the angel of death knocks on our door. 

May Allah forgive me if my posts ever imply a piety far greater than I possess. I am most in need of guidance.

Reading the Qur'ān should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully. It will also help the Muslims to have grasp over social issues and their answers discussed in the Qur'an and other matter related to inter faith so  that they are able to discuss issues with Non Muslims with authority based on refences from Qur'an.

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