Showing posts with label Verses 1-11. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Verses 1-11. Show all posts

Thursday 10 November 2022

Characteristics of Believers who will inherit Paradise - Jannah الۡفِرۡدَوۡسَؕ

Qur'an is a book of guidance for those who follow the Divine Commandments contained therein with true sincerity and total faith in Allah - the One True God without any associates and partners. They are the ones who are blessed with countless blessings of Allah not only in this world, but are also given the Divine Promise that they would Inherit Jannah, Paradise.

There are numerous verses / Ayats in Qur'an that spell out the characteristics of believers with whom Allah is pleased and on whom His countless mercies will showered forever. Please see these verses in our reference page: Selected Verses from Qur'an under the heading: Guided / Losers in Life / Hereafter (The Guided Ones).

Today we share the first eleven verses of Surah 23. Al-Muminun (The Believers), in which Allah tells us who will be those blessed ones who will inherit Jannah, Paradise. The traits are character traits are listed below, followed by their exegesis/tafsir by eminent Muslim scholars:
  • (23:1) The believers have indeed attained true success:
  • 23:2) those who, in their Prayers, humble themselves;
  • (23:3) who avoid whatever is vain and frivolous;
  • (23:4) who observe Zakah;
  • (23:5) who strictly guard their private parts (23:6) save from their wives, or those whom their right hands possess; for with regard to them they are free from blame)
  • (23:8) who are true to their trusts and their covenants,
  • (23:9) and who guard their Prayers.
  • (23:10) Such are the inheritors
  • (23:11) that shall inherit "al-Firdaus" - Paradise; and in it they shall abide forever.
Note: We will skip the exegesis/tafsir of the above quoted verses/Ayats by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi which are quite elaborate and have already been published in our Tafsir/Exegesis of Surah 23. Al-Muminun (The Believers). Please click on the link for Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi's tafsir.

Hereinunder is now views/explanation of above said Ayats by other eminent Muslim scholars and exegetes, verse by verse:

قَدۡ اَفۡلَحَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَۙ‏ 
(23:1) The believers have indeed attained true success:

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(Successful indeed are the believers) means they have attained victory and are blessed, for they have succeeded. These are the believers' characteristics are given in the succeeding Ayats:

Yusuf Ali Explanation
Aflaha اَفۡلَحَ: win through, prosper, succeed, achieve their aims or obtain salvation from sorrow and all evil. This verse connects with verses 10 and 11 below. Success or victory may come in this world, but it is certain and lasting in the world to come.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
e., it has been decided for them that they shall necessarily be successful. This style expresses the certainty of an event that is to take place in the future. It is also found in other languages. When will these glad tidings materialize? This question is answered at the end of the paragraph that they will live in Paradise forever.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
It is a true promise; nay, it is a firm decision ensuring success for the believers. If we take it as a promise, we know God never fails to honour His promises; and if we say that it is His decision, then no one can ever foil a decision by God. What is promised is success in the life of this world and in the life to come; success for the individual believer and for the community of believers. A believer will feel this success in his heart and will see it coming true in his day-to-day life. The success God promises includes all that human beings associate with success and what God keeps in store for His faithful servants.

الَّذِيۡنَ هُمۡ فِىۡ صَلَاتِهِمۡ خَاشِعُوۡنَ ۙ‏ 
(23:2) those who, in their Prayers, humble themselves;

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(Those who with their Salah are Khashi`un.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said: "(Khashi`un خَـشِعُونَ ) means those with fear and with tranquillity.'' This was also narrated from Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Az-Zuhri. It was reported from `Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, that Khushu` means the Khushu` of the heart. This was also the view of Ibrahim An-Nakha`i. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "Their Khushu` was in their hearts.' So, they lowered their gaze and were humble towards others. Khushu` in prayer is only attained by the one who has emptied his heart totally, who does not pay attention to anything else besides it, and who prefers it above all else. At that point it becomes a delight and a joy for eyes, as in the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad and An-Nasa'i from Anas, who said that the Messenger of Allah said: (Fragrance and women have been made dear to me, and Salah was made the joy of my eye.)

Yusuf Ali Explanation
Humility in prayer as regards (1) their estimate of their own worth in Allah's presence, (2) as regards their estimate of their own powers or strength unless they are helped by Allah, and (3) as regards the petitions they offer to Allah.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
Ie., they express obedience, humility and modesty before their Lord. This is precisely the essence of the prayer. If it is present in the prayer, a person feels that not only his back and head, but also his heart has bowed down before God.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
So, who are those faithful servants, the believers who receive this document written by God, containing this promise and a clear declaration of success? Who are the believers promised all goodness, victory, happiness, success and goodly provisions in this life on earth; and further promised to be successful in the hereafter, when they receive God’s reward and enjoy His pleasure? They will also have much more that is known only to God, and this will be given in their two lives. Who are these believers who will inherit paradise where they will abide?

Verses 2-9 give us a detailed list of their characteristics.

“Who humble themselves in their prayer.” They feel the reverence associated with prayer, as they stand up to address God, and their hearts are thus filled with awe, which is, in turn, reflected in their features and movements. Their spirits feel God’s majesty as they realize that they stand in His presence. Thus, all their preoccupations and distractions disappear. Their thoughts and feelings are all concentrated on their discourse with Him. In His sublime presence, they are heedless of all their surroundings. They see and feel nothing but His majesty. Their minds and hearts are purged of even the slightest alien thought or feeling. In such a situation, a stray atom is reunited with its source, a wandering spirit finds its way, and a heart that has been long in isolation finds its company. Thus, all values, concerns and considerations diminish, except for the ones that are related to God in some way.

وَالَّذِيۡنَ هُمۡ عَنِ اللَّغۡوِ مُعۡرِضُوۡنَۙ‏ 
(23:3) who avoid whatever is vain and frivolous;

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(And those who turn away from Al-Laghw.) refers to falsehood, which includes Shirk and sin, and any words or deeds that are of no benefit. 

As Allah says: (And if they pass by Al-Laghw, they pass by it with dignity) [25:72]. 

Qatadah said: "By Allah, there came to them from Allah that which kept them away from that (evil).''

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
 The word is: اللَّغْو. It is used for every act that is nonsensical, silly and purposeless. The implication is that believers abstain from things that have no objective and which have no consequence in the life of a person, not to speak of big sins. This, in a passing way, also refers to those frivolous acts which emanated from the disbelievers against Islam and the Muslims. Thus at another instance it is said that when believers hear something nonsensical, they ignore it and tell their addressees that for their own selves are their deeds and for them their deeds. In other words, they neither indulge in ridiculous things nor engage with those who indulge in them.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
This includes all frivolity, in words, actions, or concerns. A believer’s heart has its own preoccupations which steer it away from frivolity. It is full with the remembrance of God and with reflection on His majesty and His signs that we see everywhere in the universe and within ourselves. Indeed, every scene in the universe fills our minds with wonder and gives a clear message to our hearts. Moreover, the duties required by faith keep a believer preoccupied with maintaining the purity of his or her heart, soul and conscience. Believers’ duties include those of behaviour which aim at maintaining the very high standards required by faith. Moreover, the task of enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong aims at preventing any deviation in the life of the Muslim community.

This does not preclude relaxation and seeking comfort when it is needed. But this is totally different from indulging in frivolous and idle pursuits.

وَالَّذِيۡنَ هُمۡ لِلزَّكٰوةِ فَاعِلُوۡنَۙ‏ 
(23:4) who observe Zakah;

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(And those who pay the Zakah.) Most commentators say that the meaning here is the Zakah that is paid on wealth, even though this Ayah was revealed in Makkah, and Zakah was ordained in Al-Madinah in the year 2 H. The apparent meaning is that the Zakah that was instituted in Al-Madinah is the one based upon the Nusub and the specific amounts, apart from which it seems that the basic principle of Zakah was enjoined in Makkah. As Allah says in Surat Al-An`am, which was also revealed in Makkah: (but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest,) [6:141] 

It could be that what is meant here by Zakah is purification of the soul from Shirk and filth, as in the Ayah: (Indeed he succeeds who purifies himself (Zakkaha). And indeed, he fails who corrupts himself.) [91:9-10] It could be that both meanings are intended, purification of the soul and of one's wealth, because that is part of the purification of the soul, and the true believer is one who pays attention to both matters. And Allah knows best.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
Lit., "working for" or "active in behalf of [inner] purity", which is the meaning of zakah in this context (Zamakhshari; the same interpretation has been advanced by Abu Muslim).

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
Zakāh refers to that wealth which is given to meet the needs of the collectivity at God’s behest to please Him. Like prayer, it has always existed in the religion of the prohets. Thus, the addressees of the Qur’ān knew what it meant. It was not something alien to them so that its rates and exemptions be stated. They knew all these things just as they were aware of the rituals and utterances of the prayer. It is evident from the Qur’ān that it forms a pair with zakāh. While the prayer links a person to God, zakāh links him to his fellow human beings. Both these things are necessary for the success mentioned in this verse.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
Both its style and theme indicate that it was revealed during the middle stage of Prophethood at Makkah. Reading between the lines one feels that a bitter conflict had begun between the Prophet and the disbelievers of Makkah though the persecution by them had not yet become tyrannical. It appears that the Surah was sent down during the climax of the “Famine” in Makkah (v. 75-76) which according to authentic traditions occurred during the middle stage of Prophethood. Moreover, according to a tradition related by ‘Urwah bin Zubair, Hadarat Umar who had embraced Islam by that time said, ‘This Surah was revealed in my presence and I myself observed the state of the Holy Prophet during its revelation. When the revelation ended the Holy Prophet remarked ‘On this occasion ten such verses have been sent down to me that the one who measures up to them will most surely go to Paradise’. Then he recited the initial verses of the Surah. (Ahmad and Tirmidhi)

وَالَّذِيۡنَ هُمۡ لِفُرُوۡجِهِمۡ حٰفِظُوۡنَۙ‏ 
(23:5) who strictly guard their private parts

اِلَّا عَلٰٓى اَزۡوَاجِهِمۡ اَوۡ مَا مَلَـكَتۡ اَيۡمَانُهُمۡ فَاِنَّهُمۡ غَيۡرُ مَلُوۡمِيۡنَ​ۚ‏ 
(23:6) save from their wives, or those whom their right hands possess; for with regard to them they are free

فَمَنِ ابۡتَغٰى وَرَآءَ ذٰ لِكَ فَاُولٰٓـئِكَ هُمُ الۡعٰدُوۡنَ​ ۚ‏ 
(23:7) As for those who seek beyond that, they are transgressors"

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir: (verse 5-7)
(And those who guard their private parts. Except for their wives and their right-hand possessions, for then, they are free from blame. But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors.) means, those who protect their private parts from unlawful actions and do not do that which Allah has forbidden; fornication and homosexuality, and do not approach anyone except the wives whom Allah has made permissible for them or their right-hand possessions from the captives. One who seeks what Allah has made permissible for him is not to be blamed and there is no sin on him. 

Allah says: (they are free from blame. But whoever seeks beyond that) meaning, other than a wife or slave girl,

(23:7) (then those are the transgressors.) meaning, aggressors.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
(Verse 6) Lit., "or those whom their right hands possess" (aw ma malakat aymanuhum). Most of the commentators assume unquestioningly that this relates to female slaves, and that the particle aw ("or") denotes a permissible alternative. This conventional interpretation is, in my opinion inadmissible inasmuch as it is based on the assumption that sexual intercourse with one's female slave is permitted without marriage: an assumption which is contradicted by the Qur'an itself (see 4:3, {24}, {25} and 24:32, with the corresponding notes). Nor is this the only objection to the above-mentioned interpretation. Since the Qur'an applies the term "believers" to men and women alike, and since the term azwaj ("spouses"), too, denotes both the male and the female partners in marriage, there is no reason for attributing to the phrase aw ma malakat aymanuhum the meaning of "their female slaves"; and since, on the other hand, it is out of the question that female and male slaves could have been referred to here, it is obvious that this phrase does not relate to slaves at all, but has the same meaning as in 4:24 - namely, "those whom they rightfully possess through wedlock" (see note [26] on 4:24 ) - with the significant difference that in the present context this expression relates to both husbands and wives, who "rightfully possess" one another by virtue of marriage. On the basis of this interpretation, the particle aw which precedes this clause does not denote an alternative ("or") but is, rather, in the nature of an explanatory amplification, more or less analogous to the phrase "in other words" or "that is", thus giving to the whole sentence the meaning, "...save with their spouses - that is, those whom they rightfully possess [through wedlock] ...", etc. (Cf. a similar construction 25:62 - "for him who has the will to take thought - that is [lit., "or"], has the will to be grateful".)

Yusuf Ali Explanation
(Verse 5) The Muslim must guard himself against every kind of sex abuse or sex perversion. The new psychology associated with the name of Freud traces many of our hidden motives to sex, and it is common knowledge that our refinement or degradation may be measured by the hidden workings of our sex instincts. But even the natural and lawful exercise of sex is restricted to the marriage bond, under which the rights of both parties are duly regulated and maintained.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
(Verse 6) Besides wives, slave-women are mentioned here because until that time slavery had not ended. Thus, in spite of the prohibition of enslaving men and women revealed in Sūrah Muḥammad, it was essential to keep this exception for the slaves already found in the society. Later, the Qur’ān directed people to do mukātabat with these slaves. It was a declaration of the fact that the slaves had the authority to be liberated through this document. Here it may be kept in mind that at the time of the Qur’ān’s revelation, slavery was considered essential for economic and social needs the way the institution of interest is in current times. In markets, slave-men and slave-women were bought and sold, and affluent houses had slave-men and slave-women of all ages. In such circumstances, a sudden directive for their emancipation would have resulted in many evils: for livelihood, men would have been forced to resort to beggary and women to prostitution. For this reason, the Qur’ān adopted a gradual way to eradicate this evil from the society and after many gradual measures of eradication, revealed the law of mukātabat (24:33) referred to earlier. After that, no option remained to enslave any person who was able to stand on his feet with virtue and righteousness.

(Verse 7) The implication is that ascetism is not what is demanded. Sexual relations with the wife are absolutely permitted. However, except for her, these relations are absolutely prohibited if they are in the form of adultery, temporary marriage (muta‘), sodomy or bestiality. They cannot be expected from a Muslim. Yet it should remain clear that there is no possibility in the words of the verse to interpret them as referring to masturbation and other similar acts. They are confined to sexual relations with another individual and cannot relate to self-gratification in this regard. The reason for this is that the preposition عَلٰي (on/upon) does not collocate with يُحَافِظُوْنَ (those who guard) and thus there necessarily exists a taḍmīn in this expression, and words such as عن الوقوع علي أحد (from indulging with anyone) are suppressed after حٰفِظُوْن. Thus, the object from which the exception is sought in this expression is not the ways of sexual-gratification: it is the individuals with whom a person can establish sexual relations. The verse does not mean that no way of sexual-gratification is allowed except through wives and slave-women; it means that except for wives and slave-women, one cannot appease one’s sexual urge with any other individual.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
(Verse 5) This is a pointer to the purity of the human soul, the home and the community, and to the way of protecting oneself, family and society. It is all the result of refraining from indulgence in sin and turning people’s hearts only to what is permissible. Thus, the Muslim community is protected from the unrestrained promiscuity that undermines the family and allows dubious parenthood to increase and become acceptable.

A community with no restraint on desire is wont to find its very social fabric corrupted, because it deprives itself of the sanctity for the family. The family home is the basic unit in the structure of the community. It is the cradle where children grow up. To serve as a healthy cradle, it needs purity and security, both of which give reassurance to the husband and wife so that each has full trust in the other. Thus, they cooperate to safeguard their home and ensure the healthy upbringing of their young ones.

(Verse 6) The Qur’ān defines here the clean and healthy way which allows a man to place the seeds of life in the right place: “Who refrain from sex except with those joined to them in marriage, or those whom they rightfully possess – for then, they are free of all blame.” As for married couples, no argument is raised here, because marriage is respected in all human communities. The other form, referring to ‘rightfully possessed’ women, needs some explanation.

We have spoken about the question of slavery and the Islamic approach to it elsewhere in this book. As we have stated, when Islam was revealed, slavery was a universal system. Captives of war were made slaves, and this was an international institution. It was not possible for Islam at the time, when it was engaged in military battles against its enemies who were trying hard to stop its spread with military force, to abolish slavery unilaterally. This would have meant that Muslim captives would remain enslaved by the enemies of Islam, while Islam would set enemy captives free. Hence, while putting an end to all other sources of slavery, Islam made a provisional exception in the case of captives of war. The abolition of this remaining source was delayed until a new international system to regulate the question of war captives could be put in place.

With this source of slavery remaining, captive women continued to come into Islamic society. To give them equal treatment, on the basis of the system then operating throughout the world, meant that they should be slaves. Their enslavement did not allow them to become wives through normal marriage. Hence, Islam allowed intercourse with them by their masters only, unless they were freed through the many ways Islam provided for the same.

We see also in this permission a way to satisfy the natural needs of the women slaves themselves, so that they did not resort to immorality. We see this happening today, despite the international treaties prohibiting slavery, when women are taken captive in war. Islam, however, does not condone such promiscuity. But Islam did open up several ways for women slaves to gain their freedom: one of which automatically came into operation when the slave woman gave birth to her master’s child. In this case, she became free on her master’s death. Alternatively, her master may give her freedom, either voluntarily or in atonement for some offence he might have committed. Or, she may choose to buy her own freedom. A different situation applied if her master hit her across the face. He was, then, required to free her by way of compensation. There were further ways to freedom as well.

Anyway, allowing slavery through war was a temporary necessity in order to maintain equal treatment in a world where all war captives became slaves. It was, however, not a part of the Islamic social system per se.

(Verse 7) The limit is that of wives and women rightly possessed. There can be no other legitimate way. Whoever tries to go beyond this limit actually breaks the boundaries of permissibility and falls in sin. He becomes an assailant of human honour. There can be no lawful relationship except through marriage or the results of war undertaken for the sake of Islam. When transgression beyond these well-defined limits takes place, the individual concerned becomes corrupt, like a sheep grazing out of bounds, and the family is undermined because of the lack of security felt by its members. Indeed, the whole community feels endangered because its wolves have been set loose. Islam is keen to avoid all that.

وَالَّذِيۡنَ هُمۡ لِاَمٰنٰتِهِمۡ وَعَهۡدِهِمۡ رَاعُوۡنَ ۙ‏ 
(23:8) who are true to their trusts and their covenants,

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(Those who are faithfully true to their Amanat and to their covenants) When they are entrusted with something, they do not betray that trust, but they fulfill it, and when they make a promise or make a pledge, they are true to their word. 

This is not like the hypocrites about whom the Messenger of Allah said: (The signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks, he lies, when he makes a promise he breaks it, and when he is entrusted with something he betrays that trust.)

Yusuf Ali Explanation
Trusts may be express or implied. Express trusts are those where property is entrusted or duties are assigned by someone to some other whom he trusts, to carry out either immediately or in specified contingencies, such as death. Implied trusts arise out of power, or position, or opportunity; e.g., a king holds his kingdom on trust from Allah for his subjects. The subject of covenants, express and implied, has been discussed in n. 682 to v.1. Covenants create obligations, and express and implied trusts and covenants taken together cover the whole field of obligations.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
This is a very comprehensive expression for all moral directives in religion. Imām Amīn Aḥsan Iṣlāḥī writes:

اَمٰنٰت  refers to all trusts which our Lord has blessed us with in the form of strengths, abilities, obligations and responsibilities or in the shape of favours, blessings, riches and offspring. Also included in them are things people have been entrusted with or those discharging, which is our responsibility according to the norms. In a similar way, also included in it are the covenants and promises our Lord has taken from our nature in the unseen world or taken in this world in the form of the sharī‘ah through His messengers. Moreover, it also comprises all those promises and covenants which we made with God through our nature or through His prophets. Similarly, it also consists of promises made with a group or an individual in this world, whether they are written or oral or are thought to be understood in a civilized society even if they are not made orally or in writing. It is stated by the Almighty that it is these servants of His who abide by all these trusts and promises. They are neither dishonest and rebellious in the matter of their Lord nor are ones who are unfaithful to His creatures or go back on their word with them. (Amīn Aḥsan Iṣlāḥī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 5, 299)

وَالَّذِيۡنَ هُمۡ عَلٰى صَلَوٰتِهِمۡ يُحَافِظُوۡنَ​ۘ‏ 
(23:9) and who guard their Prayers.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
(And those who strictly guard their Salawat.) means, they persistently offer their prayers at their appointed times, as Ibn Mas`ud said: "I asked the Messenger of Allah, `O Messenger of Allah, which deed is most beloved to Allah' He said,
  • (Prayer at the appointed time.) I said, `Then what' He said,
  • (Kindness to one's parents. ) I said, `Then what' He said,
  • (Jihad in the way of Allah.) It was recorded in the Two Sahihs. Qatadah said: "At the fixed times, with the proper bowing and prostration.' 
Allah begins and ends this list of praiseworthy qualities with Salah, which is indicative of its virtue, as the Prophet said: (Adhere to righteousness, you will never be able encompass it all. Know that the best of your deeds is Salah. None will preserve his Wuddu' except the believer.) Having described them with these praiseworthy characteristics and righteous deeds, Allah then says:

Yusuf Ali Explanation
In verse 2 we were directed to the spirit of humility and earnestness in our prayers. Here we are told how necessary the habit of regular prayer is to our spiritual well-being and development, as it brings us closer to Allah, and thus sums up the light of the seven jewels of our Faith, viz.,: (1) humility, (2) avoidance of vanity, (3) charity, (4) sex purity, (5) fidelity to trusts, and (6) to covenants, and (7) an earnest desire to get closer to Allah.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
It was with the prayer with which the attributes of the believers began earlier and it is with the prayer with which it has ended now. This shows the significance of prayer in religion: it guards all the high morals needed in religion and as such is a guarantee for a person to adhere to religion. No doubt, even after that, the onslaughts of Satan continue but he cannot remain permanently lodged in the heart, if a person is regular in the prayer. The prayer continues to ward it off and like a wall protects his heart and mind from the attacks of Satan. It is for this reason that even in times of danger it has been directed that if a person is on foot or on a conveyance, he must offer it. Imām Amīn Aḥsan Iṣlāḥī has pointed to some other aspects as well. He writes:
... The prayer has been mentioned at the beginning with regard to its essence: humility before God and at the end with regards to punctuality, vigilance and diligence in offering it. This is because the blessings found in the prayer can only be reaped when it has the essence of humility in it and is also continuously guarded. This is the plant of paradise which does not grow unless it is fully nourished. A little negligence leaves it barren and fruitless. In fact, there is a danger that it might completely wither away. If we want to gain real benefit from it, we must save it from the onslaughts of Satan and nurture it very punctually in a very diligent way. It is then when we will get some idea of the comfort of the eyes God has concealed in it. (Amīn Aḥsan Iṣlāḥī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 5, 299)
Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
They do not neglect their prayers or miss them through laziness. Nor do they fail to attend to them as prayer should be attended to. They offer them on time, attending to obligatory and recommended parts, making them complete, omitting nothing essential. Their prayer is alive, filling their hearts and interacting with their consciences. Prayer maintains a bond between God and human hearts. Therefore, a person who does not attend regularly to his prayer is unlikely to attend diligently and conscientiously to his bonds with other people. The qualities of believers outlined in this sūrah start with prayer and finish with prayer, so as to stress its unrivalled importance in the structure of faith. After all, prayer is the most perfect form of worship addressed to God.

اُولٰٓـئِكَ هُمُ الۡوَارِثُوۡنَ ۙ‏ 
(23:10) Such are the inheritors
الَّذِيۡنَ يَرِثُوۡنَ الۡفِرۡدَوۡسَؕ هُمۡ فِيۡهَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ‏ 
(23:11) that shall inherit Paradise; and in it they shall abide forever.

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(These are indeed the heirs. Who shall inherit Firdaws. They shall dwell therein forever.) It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said:
(If you ask Allah for Paradise, then ask him for Al-Firdaws, for it is the highest part of Paradise, in the middle of Paradise, and from it spring the rivers of Paradise, and above it is the (Mighty) Throne of the Most Merciful.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said: (There is not one among you who does not have two homes, a home in Paradise and a home in Hell. If he dies and enters Hell, the people of Paradise will inherit his home, and this is what Allah said: (These are indeed the heirs.) Ibn Jurayj narrated from Layth from Mujahid:
(These are indeed the heirs.) "The believers will inherit the homes of the disbelievers because they were created to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate. So when these believers did what was enjoined on them of worship, and the disbelievers neglected to do that which they were commanded to do and for which they had been created, the believers gained the share that they would have been given if they had obeyed their Lord. Indeed, they will be given more than that as well.'' 
This is what was reported in Sahih Muslim from Abu Burdah, from his father, from the Prophet who said: (Some of the Muslims will come on the Day of Resurrection with sins like mountains, but Allah will forgive them and put (their burden of sin) on the Jews and Christians.)

According to another version: the Messenger of Allah said: (When the Day of Resurrection comes, Allah will appoint for every Muslim a Jew or Christian, and it will be said, "This is your ransom from the Fire.'') 

`Umar bin `Abd Al-`Aziz asked Abu Burdah to swear by Allah besides Whom there is no other God, three times, that his father told him that from the Prophet, and he swore that oath. I say: this Ayah is like Allah's saying:
(Such is the Paradise which We shall give as an inheritance to those of Our servants who have had Taqwa.) [19:63]
(This is the Paradise which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds which you used to do.) [43:72]
Yusuf Ali Explanation: (Verse 10)
Cf. xxi. 105, where it is said that the righteous will inherit the earth. In the first verse of this Sura, the final success or victory is referred to. Truth will prevail even on this earth, but it may not be for any individual men of righteousness to see it: it may be in the time of their heirs and successors. But in the life to come, there is no doubt that every man will see the fruit of his life here, and the righteous will inherit heaven, in the sense that they will attain it after their death here.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
(Verse 10) The actual word used is: الْوٰرِثُوْنَ. It is evident from its various usages in the Qur’ān that many a time it gets stripped from its complete meaning and on such occasions connotes the meaning of simply any “owner” or “master.” In the opinion of this writer, this is precisely what has happened here too.

(Verse 11) This is the most common word for Paradise and is found in almost all human languages. It is used twice in the Qur’ān. Once here and once in verse 107 of Sūrah al-Kahf. The way it is used there shows that it has become a proper noun to refer to the name of Paradise.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
(Verse 10) Since life on earth does not achieve the perfection God wants for mankind, He has willed that believers who follow His way should attain their goal in paradise, where they live forever, in complete security, and where they have no fear.

(Verse 11) Both its style and theme indicate that it was revealed during the middle stage of Prophethood at Makkah. Reading between the lines one feels that a bitter conflict had begun between the Prophet and the disbelievers of Makkah though the persecution by them had not yet become tyrannical. It appears that the Surah was sent down during the climax of the “Famine” in Makkah (v. 75-76) which according to authentic traditions occurred during the middle stage of Prophethood. Moreover, according to a tradition related by ‘Urwah bin Zubair, Hadarat Umar who had embraced Islam by that time said, ‘This Surah was revealed in my presence and I myself observed the state of the Holy Prophet during its revelation. When the revelation ended the Holy Prophet remarked ‘On this occasion ten such verses have been sent down to me that the one who measures up to them will most surely go to Paradise’. Then he recited the initial verses of the Surah. (Ahmad and Tirmidhi)

To summarize, if we just read these 11 verses carefully, especially 2-9, we would wonder how easy it is to inherit Jannah - but practically how difficult, for the evil forces are always hovering over us and trying their best to take us away from materializing these character traits that Allah wants the believer to inculcate in them. We can start from today, and move step by step, and we will see how Allah will help us to be on Sirat e Mustaqeem. We need to give it a sincere try!!
May Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى‎) help us understand Qur'ān and follow the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, which is embodiment of commandments of Allah contained in the Qur'ān. May Allah help us to be like the ones He loves and let our lives be lived helping others and not making others' lives miserable or unlivable. May all our wrong doings, whether intentional or unintentional, be forgiven before the angel of death knocks on our door. 
وَمَا عَلَيۡنَاۤ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِيۡنُ‏ 
(36:17) and our duty is no more than to clearly convey the Message.”
That is Our duty is only to convey to you the message that Allah has entrusted us with. Then it is for you to accept it or reject it. We have not been made responsible for making you accept it forcibly, and if you do not accept it, we shall not be seized in consequence of your disbelief, you will yourselves be answerable for your actions on Day of Resurrection.

Reading the Qur'ān should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully. It will also help the Muslims to have grasp over social issues and their answers discussed in the Qur'an and other matter related to inter faith so that they are able to discuss issues with non-Muslims with authority based on refences from Qur'an.

May Allah forgive me if my posts ever imply a piety far greater than I possess. I am most in need of guidance.

Note: When we mention God in our posts, we mean One True God, we call Allah in Islam, with no associates. Allah is the Sole Creator of all things, and that Allah is all-powerful and all-knowing. Allah has no offspring, no race, no gender, no body, and is unaffected by the characteristics of human life.

For more Selected Verses, please refer to our reference page: Selected Verses from the Qur'anYou may also refer to our Reference Pages  and Understanding Al Qur'an for knowing more about Islam and Qur'ān.
Photo | Tafsir References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Qur'ān from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that the exegesis of the chapters of the Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.  
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided, additional input has been interjected from the following sources: 
  • Tafsir Ibn Khatir
  • Muhammad Asad Translation
  • Yusuf Ali Translation
  • Translation Javed Ahmad Ghamidi / Al Mawrid
  • Qur'an Wiki
  • Verse by Verse Qur'an Study Circle
  • Towards Understanding the Quran
In addition, references of other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites.

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