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Sunday, September 16, 2018

Surah Ar Rahman: The Most Merciful (Summary of 55th Chapter of Holy Quran) Part II - Explanation


In the Part I of the Introduction to Surah Ar Rehman, we mentioned the refrain which appears 31 times in this unique surah of the Holy Qur'an. Now when we share the translation and explanation of the verses of this surah, the why of refrain verse would automatically unveil.

Generally speaking Surah Al-Rahman is divided into three parts. The initial verses are the introduction to the name of this surah which is attributed to the one of the 99 names of Allah, the Most Exalted and Merciful, followed by a few verses indicating how Allah has made men to understand the Qur'an. In Part I of the Surah, Allah mentions his blessings and bounties that He has bestowed upon the man. 

And then in Part II, there is a caution for men and jinns who would face Allah's wrath if they do not adhere to the commandments of Allah. But more than the cautions,  the remaining major portion of the surah gives out reassurance to those who do good, have faith in Allah and His book - a significant indicator of Allah's countless blessing and mercies men of good deed would receive. Even for the sake of repetition, the picture of paradise is painted so eloquently that men of faith are overjoyed to hear what awaits for them in the paradise as reward for their steadfastness and living a life as expected of them as Muslims.

Although in the beginning of the Surah, the address is directed only to human beings, for to them only belongs the vicegerency" of the earth, among them only have the Messengers of Allah been raised, and in their tongues only have the Divine Books been revealed, yet from verse 13 onward both the men and the jinn have been addressed and one and the same invitation has been extended to both. [1]

Now let's read the surah verse by verse and explanations here and there on points that need further explanation: 


بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"
1. The Most Beneficent (Allah)!
2. Has taught (you mankind) the Qur'an (by His Mercy).
3. He created man.
4. He taught him eloquent speech.
1-4 it has been stated that the teaching of the Qur'an is from Allah Almighty and it is the very demand of His mercy that He should provide guidance to mankind through this teaching, for it is He Who has created man as a rational and intelligent being.

Verses 5-30 expound upon natural displays of Allah’s creative power and mercy in showering those who inhabit the earth with blessings. 
5. The sun and the moon run on their fixed courses (exactly) calculated with measured out stages for each (for reckoning, etc.).
6. And the herbs (or stars) and the trees both prostrate.
5-6 it has been said that the whole system of the Universe is functioning under Allah's Sovereignty and everything in the earth and heavens is subject to His Command alone. Science has lately found out the exact movement of the solar system and galaxies that follow a well calculated path, never deviating a fraction. Allah told this more than 1400 years ago when no such knowledge about placatory movement existed. So how could then people say that Quran is written by Muhammad (peace be upon him) when such knowledge never existed.

At other places, Allah says: "It is not permitted for the sun to overtake the moon nor for the night to outstrip the day; each of them swims in a fixed orbit." [Al-Qur'an 36:40] and: "He is the Cleaver of the daybreak (from the dark): He makes the night for rest and tranquility and the sun and the moon for the reckoning (of time): Such is the judgment and ordering of (Him), the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing." [Al-Qur'an 6:96] 
7. And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the Balance.
8. In order that you may not transgress (due) balance.
9. And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.
7-9 another important truth that has been expressed is that Allah has established the entire system of the Universe precisely and equitably on justice, and the nature of this system requires that those who dwell in it also should adhere to justice within the bounds of their authority and should not disturb the balance.
10. And the earth He has put for the creatures.
11. Therein are fruits, date-palms producing sheathed fruit-stalks (enclosing dates).
12. And also corn, with (its) leaves and stalk for fodder, and sweet-scented plants.
13. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
14. He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.
15. And the jinns did He create from a smokeless flame of fire.
16. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
17. (He is) the Lord of the two easts (places of sunrise during early summer and early winter) and the Lord of the two wests (places of sunset during early summer and early winter).
18. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
19. He has let loosed the two seas (the salt water and the sweet) meeting together.
20. Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress.
21. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
Verses 19-22: A similar phenomenon has been observed in the Gulf of Alaska. This place was first spotted by Kent Smith while on a photo shoot in the Alaska Gulf. This is what he had to say about it:
"I thought this was the most unusual thing I saw on the Alaskan cruise in the water. These two bodies of water were merging in the middle of the Alaskan gulf and there was a foam developing only at their junction."[4]
22. Out of them both come out pearl and coral.
23. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
24. And His are the ships going and coming in the seas, like mountains.
25. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
10-25 besides mentioning the wonders and excellences of Allah's might, references have been made to His those bounties from which the jinn and men are deriving benefit.
26. Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.
27. And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever.
28. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
29. Whosoever is in the heavens and on earth begs of Him (its needs from Him). Every day He has a matter to bring forth (such as giving honour to some, disgrace to some, life to some, death to some, etc.)!
30. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
In vv.26-30 both the men and the jinn have been reminded of the truths that in this Universe no one except One God is immortal and imperishable, and there is none, from the lowest to the highest, who does not stand in need of God for his survival and other requirements. Whatever is happening here, from the earth to the heavens, is happening under His administration and control.

Verses 31-45 contain the caution and Allah's warning to those who transgress and how they would be treated on the Day of Judgment: 
31. We shall attend to you, O you two classes (jinns and men)!
32. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
33. O assembly of jinns and men! If you have power to pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, then pass (them)! But you will never be able to pass them, except with authority (from Allah)!
34. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
35. There will be sent against you both, smokeless flames of fire and (molten) brass, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.
36. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
In vv. 31-36 both the groups have been warned that the time is fast approaching when they will be called to account, which they will not be able to avoid, for God's Kingdom is encircling them from every side; it is not in their power to flee it; if they are involved in the misunderstanding that they can, they may try to do so. 
37. Then when the heaven is rent asunder, and it becomes rosy or red like red-oil, or red hide.
38. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
In vv. 37-38 it has been said that this accountability will be held on the Day of Resurrection. 
39. So on that Day no question will be asked of man or jinn as to his sin, (because they have already been known from their faces either white or black).
40. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
41. The Mujrimun (polytheists, criminals, sinners, etc.) will be known by their marks (black faces), and they will be seized by their forelocks and their feet.
42. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
43. This is Hell which the Mujrimun (polytheists, criminals, sinners, etc.) denied.
44. They will go between it (Hell) and the boiling hot water!
45. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
Verses 39-45 are addressed to the sinners, both men and jinns. On the Day of Judgment, they would be recognized due to their blackened faces (may Allah count us not in this category - Aameen) and will be shown the way to Jahanum (Hell) where blazing fires and boiling waters await them.

After stern warning to the sinners, Verses 46-78 bring in a cool breeze of hope for those who have been faithful and saved them from sins during their wordily life: 
46. But for him who [the true believer of Islamic Monotheism who performs all the duties ordained by Allah and His Messenger Muhammad , and keeps  away (abstain) from all kinds of sin and evil deeds prohibited in Islam and fears standing before his Lord], there will be two Gardens (i.e. in Paradise).
47. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
48. With spreading branches;
49. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
50. In them (both) will be two springs flowing (free)
51. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
52. In them (both) will be every kind of fruit in pairs.
53. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
54. Reclining upon the couches lined with silk brocade, and the fruits of the two Gardens will be near at hand.
55. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
56. Wherein both will be those (maidens) restraining their glances upon their husbands, whom no man or jinn yatmithhunna (has opened their hymens with sexual intercourse) before them.
57. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
58. (In beauty) they are like rubies and coral.
59. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
60. Is there any reward for good other than good?
61. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
62. And besides these two, there are two other Gardens (i.e. in Paradise).
63. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
64. Dark green (in colour).
65. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
66. In them (both) will be two springs gushing forth water.
67. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
68. In them (both) will be fruits, and date- palms and pomegranates.
69. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
70. Therein (gardens) will be fair (wives) good and beautiful;
71. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
72. Houris (beautiful, fair females) restrained in pavilions;
73.  Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
74. Whom no man or jinn have ever touched before.
75. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
76. Reclining on green cushions and rich beautiful mattresses.
The 79th verse is in Arabic  reads: مُتَّكِـئِيۡنَ عَلٰى رَفۡرَفٍ خُضۡرٍ وَّعَبۡقَرِىٍّ حِسَانٍ​ۚ‏ 

The word "abqari" in the original is from "abqar" - the capital city of the jinn in the legends of the pre-Islamic Arabia. It was on that account that the Arabs called every fine and rare thing abqari as if it belonged to the fairyland and had no match in the material world. So much so that in their idiom the man who possessed extraordinary abilities and who performed wonderful works was also called abqari The English word genius also is spoken in the same sense and is also derived from genii which is a synonym of jinn. That is why the word abqari; has been used here to give an idea of the extraordinary exquisiteness of the provisions of Paradise to the Arabs. [1]
77. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?
78. Blessed be the Name of your Lord (Allah), the Owner of Majesty and Honour.
And from verse 46 to the end of the Surah mention has been made of those rewards and blessings which will be granted to the righteous men and jinn who have led pious lives in the world and lived with a clear understanding that they will have to appear before their Lord one day and render an account of their deeds and actions.

You may refer to our post "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, meaning and summary of other chapters (Though not complete but building up from 30th Part backwards for chapters in 30th Part are shorter and easier to understand)

Photo: Header
References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
The explanation of verses is from the work of prominent Muslim scholar Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi from his book "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an."

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2 comments:

Aur phirr mairray Rubb kee kon kon see Naamton ko jhutlao gay?Thanks for sharing Ultimate Decision blog. Translation n further explanation is simple n easy to understand. May Almighty Allah guide us n give us toufeeq to follow Qurran n sunnah in true spirit. JazakAllah

We all must make an endeavour to better understand Islam by understanding the Holy Quran in the light of Suunah of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

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