Thursday, June 21, 2018

114 Chapters (Surahs) of the Holy Qur'an

The Holy Qur'an is divided into 30 parts and contains 114 chapters, called Sūrah in Arabic. Each part has varying number of chapters depending upon their length. For example the second surah Al Baqarah (The Cow) is spread over two and half parts.

Most of the Sūrahs were revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) during his stay in Makkah. It is agreed by a majority of scholars 20 chapters were revealed in Medina, while the remaining were revealed in Makkah. However, of these 12 chapter are disputed for the place of revelation. 

The chapter revealed during stay of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in Makkah is about about 13 years (610-622 AD) up to the time of his Hijrah to Madina. The second phase of revelation phase lasted about 10 years, from Hijrah Madina and to the death of the Prophet (peace be upon him). 

Although placed at number 96, the opening verses of The Surah Al Alaq (Clot) became the first verses of the Holy Qur'an revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him):
“Read in the name of thy Lord Who created: Created man from a clot of blood. Recite! Thy Lord is the Most Beneficent, Who taught man by the pen, taught him what he knew not”
And the last surah to be revealed on Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was Sürah Al Nasr (Succour), revealed shortly after the magnificent cashless capture of city of Makkah, which gave an indication to the prophet that now his mission had come to an end for he had for the last 23 years successfully not only conveyed the words and commandants of Allah to mankind but also lived a life exactly as spelt out in the Holy Qur'an:
When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest,
And you see the people entering into the religion of Allah in multitudes,
Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance.
It may be asked as to why the exegesis of Sūrahs is repeated in our blog as these are available on internet and anyone can consult the related sites. The difference between the exegesis / tafsir in our blog is that while other sites present only one explanation from one scholar, we have combined explanations / exegesis of each verse by more than one scholars. In some cases, the verses carry explanation by no less than three-four scholars. This gives a reader a chance to read viewpoint of different scholars and how they interpret each verse as per their perception and experience. 

The details of 114 chapters along with their subject translated in English is shown as against each Arabic name herein under ( Click on the Surah which have been written in bold  and Underlined to read the translation of verses and the exegesis,  and also listen to the recitation in Arabic ):

Note: The Sürah names in blue are Sürah revealed in Makkah, while Surah names in green are the ones revealed in Medina. The Juz / Part are shown in red colour.

Juz 1:
Sürah 1Al Fatiha (The Opening) 

Juz 1-3:
Sürah 2Al Baqarah (The Cow) 

Juz 3-4:
Sürah 3Al 'Imran (The Family of Imran) 
Overview | Exegesis: | Part I Part II | Part III | Part IV | Part V | Part VI |

Juz 4-5:
Sürah 4An Nisa' (Women)   
Overview | Exegesis: | Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV | Part V | Part VI |

Juz 6-7:
Sürah 5Al Ma'idah (The Table Spread) 
Overview | Exegesis: | Part I | Part II |    Part III | Part IV |

Juz 7-8:
Sürah 6.  Al-Anʻām (Cattle) 
Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III | 

Juz 8-9:
Sürah 7Al A'raf (The Heights) 
| Overview | Exegesis: | Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV | Part V |

Juz 9-10:
Sürah 8Al Anfal (Spoils of War) 
| Overview | Exegesis: | Part I | Part II |

Juz 10-11:
Sürah 9Al Tawbah (Repentance) 
| Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III

Juz 11:
Sürah 10Al Yunus (Jonah) 
Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III |  | Part IV |

Juz 11-12:
Sürah 11Al Hud 
Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV |

Juz 12-13:
Sürah 12Yusuf (Joseph) 
Overview | Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Lessons |

Juz 13:
Sürah 13Al Ra'd (Thunder) | Exegesis |

Juz 14:
Sürah 14Ibrahim (Abraham) | Exegesis |

Sürah 15 Al-Hijr 

Sürah 16. Al Nahl (The Bee) 
| Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III | 

Juz 15:
Sürah 17Al Isra(The Night Journey) 
Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |  | Part IV |

Juz 15-16:
Sürah 18Al Kahf (The Cave) 
Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III |  | Part IV |

Juz 16:
Sürah 19. Maryam (Mary)
Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |

Sürah 20. Ta Ha  
Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |

Juz 17:
Sürah 21 Al Anbiya' (The Prophets) 
Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III

Sürah 22Al Hajj (The Pilgrimage) 
| Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II|

Juz 18:
Sürah 23Al Mu'minun (The Believers) 
|Exegesis: Part I | Part II |

Sürah 24. An Noor (The Light)
| Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III |  | Part IV | Part V

Juz 18-19:
Sürah 25Al Furqan (The Criterion) 

Juz 19:
Sürah 26. Ash Shu'ara (The Poets) 
|Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV | Part V |

Juz 19-20:
Sürah 27Al Naml (The Ants) 
Overview | Exegesis: | Part I | Part II|

Juz 20:
Sürah 28. Al Qasas (The Story) 
Overview | Exegesis Part I | Exegesis Part II |

Juz 20-21:
Sürah 29Al 'Ankabut (The Spider) 
Overview | Exegesis |

Juz 21:
Sürah 30. Al Rum (The Romans) 
Historical Background | Exegesis |

Sürah 31Al Luqman

Sürah 32.  Al Sajdah (Prostration) 
| Overview | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Juz 21-22:
Sürah 33 Al Ahzab (The Clans) 
| Overview | Exegesis Battle of Trench |

Juz 22:
Sürah 34Saba' (Sheba)

Sürah 35Fatir (The Originator)

Juz 22-23:
Sürah 36Yā-Sīn  

Juz 23:
Sürah 37Al Saffat (Those Ranged in Ranks) 
| Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |

Sürah 38Al Sad - The Letter Saad 
Overview | Exegesis |

Juz 23-24:
Sürah 39 Al Zumar (The Throngs)

Juz 24:
Sürah 40Mu'min (Believer) also called Ghafir (Forgiving)

Juz 24-25:
Sürah 41 Fussilat (Clearly Spelled Out)

Juz 25:
Sürah 42Al Shura (Consultation)

Sürah 43.  Al Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold)

Sürah 44Al Dukhan (Smoke)

Sürah 45Al Jathiyah (Kneeling Down)

Juz 26:
Sürah 46Al Ahqaf (The Sand-Dunes) 

Sürah 47Muhammad (The Praised One)

Sürah 48Al Fath (Victory) 
| Overview | Exegesis |

Sürah 49Al Hujurat (The Private Apartments) 
| Overview | Exegesis |

Sürah 50Qaf

Juz 26-27:
Sürah 51 Al Dhariyat (The Winnowing Winds) 

Juz 27:
Sürah 52Al Tur (The Mount)

Sürah 53Al Najm (The Unfolding)

Sürah 54Al Qamar (The Moon)

Sürah 55Ar Rahman (The Most Merciful) 
| Part 1 (Introduction) | Part 2 (Explanation)

Sürah 56Al Waqi'ah (The Inevitable Event)

Sürah 57Al Hadid (Iron)

Juz 28:
Sürah 58Al Mujadilah (The Pleading Woman) 

Sürah 59Al Hashr (The Gathering)

Sürah 60Al Mumtahinah (The Examined One)

Sürah 61Al Saff (The Ranks)

Sürah 62Al Jumu'ah (The Congregation)

Sürah 63Al Munafiqoon (The Hypocrites)

Sürah 64Al Taghabun (Loss and Gain)

Sürah 65Al Talaq (Divorce)

Sürah 66Al Talaq (Divorce)

Juz 29:
Sürah 67Al Mulk (Dominion) 

Sürah 68Al Qalam (The Pen)

Sürah 69Al Haaqah (The Inevitable Reality)

Sürah 70Al Ma'arij (The Ascending Stairways)

Sürah 71Nuh (Noah)

Sürah 72Al Jinn (The Jinn - The Unseen Beings)

Sürah 73Al Muzzammil (The Enshrouded One)

Sürah 74Al Muddaththir (The Enfolded One)

Sürah 75Al Qiyamah (Resurrection)

Sürah 76Al Insan (Man)

Sürah 77Al Mursalat (Those Sent Forth)

Juz 30:
Sürah 78An Naba' (The Great News)

Sürah 79Al Nazi'at (Those Who Pull Out)

Sürah 80'Abasa (He Frowned)

Sürah 81Al Takwir (Shrouding in Darkness)

Sürah 82Al Infitar (The Cleaving Asunder)

Sürah 83Al Mutaffifin (Those Who Give Short Measure)

Sürah 84Al Inshiqaq (The Splitting Asunder)

Sürah 85Al Buruj (The Great Constellation)

Sürah 86Al Tariq (That Which Comes in the Night)

Sürah 87Al A'la (The All-Highest)

Sürah 88Al Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming Event)

Sürah 89Al Fajr (The Daybreak)

Sürah 90Al Balad (The City)

Sürah 91Al Shams (The Sun)

Sürah 92Al Layl (The Night)

Sürah 93Al Duha (The Bright Morning Hours)

Sürah 94Al Sharh (The Relief / Comfort)

Sürah 95Al Tin (The Fig)

Sürah 96Al Alaq (The Clinging Clot)

Sürah 97Al Qadr (The Power / Destiny) 
| Overview | Exegesis |

Sürah 98Al Bayyinah (The Evidence of Truth)

Sürah 99Al Zalzalah (The Earthquake)

Sürah 100Al 'Adiyat (The Chargers)

Sürah 101. Al Qari'ah (The Sudden Calamity)

Sürah 102. Al Takathur (Greed for More and More)

Sürah 103. Al 'Asr (The Time) 
| Overview | Summary |

Sürah 104. Al Humazah (The Slanderer)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 105. Al Fil (The Elephant)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 106. Al Quraysh (The Tribe of Quraysh)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 107. Al Ma'un (Small Kindnesses)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 108. Al Kawthar (Good in Abundance)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 109. Al Kafirun (The Unbelievers / Those Who Deny the Truth)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 110.  Al Nasr (Divine Help / Succour)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 111. Al Masad (The Twisted Strands)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 112.  Al Ikhlas (The Declaration of [God's] Oneness)

Sürah 113. Al Falaq (The Rising Dawn)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |

Sürah 114. Al Nas (Mankind)
| Summary | Exegesis / Tafseer |
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. [2] 
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources:
In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites.
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