Thursday, June 21, 2018

114 Chapters (Surahs) of the Holy Qur'an

The Holy Qur'an is divided into 30 parts and contains 114 chapters, called Surah in Arabic. Each part has varying number of chapters depending upon their length. For example the second surah Al Baqara (The Cow) is spread over two and half parts.

Most of the surahs were revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) during his stay in Makkah. It is agreed by a majority of scholars 20 chapters were revealed in Medina, while the remaining were revealed in Makkah. However, of these 12 chapter are disputed for the place of revelation. 

The chapter revealed during stay of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in Makkah is about about 13 years (610-622 AD) up to the time of his Hijrah to Madina. The second phase of revelation phase lasted about 10 years, from Hijrah Madina and to the death of the Prophet (peace be upon him). 

Although placed at number 96, the opening verses of The Surah Al Alaq (Clot) became the first verses of the Holy Qur'an revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him):
“Read in the name of thy Lord Who created: Created man from a clot of blood. Recite! Thy Lord is the Most Beneficent, Who taught man by the pen, taught him what he knew not”
And the last surah to be revealed on Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was Surah 
Al Nasr (Succour), revealed shortly after the magnificent cashless capture of city of Makkah, which gave an indication to the prophet that now his mission had come to an end for he had for the last 23 years successfully not only conveyed the words and commandants of Allah to mankind but also lived a life exactly as spelt out in the Holy Qur'an:
When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest,
And you see the people entering into the religion of Allah in multitudes,
Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance.
The details of 114 chapters along with their subject translated in English is shown as against each Arabic name herein under ( Click on the Surah which have been written in bold  and Underlined to read the translation of verses and the exegesis,  and also listen to the recitation in Arabic ):

Note: The Surah names in blue are surahs revealed in Makkah, while Surah names in green are the ones revealed in Medina. The Juz / Part are shown in red colour.
  1. Juz 1        Al Fatiha (The Opening) 
  2. Juz 1-3     Al Baqarah (The Cow) |  Why Surah named after Cow | Summary | Exegesis Overview | Introduction | Section 1/ Part I I Section 1 / Part II / Section 2 |  Section 3 / Part I | Section 3 / Part II | Section 3 / Part III | Section 4 |  Āyat al-Kursī
  3. Juz 3-4      Al 'Imran (The Family of 'Imran) 
  4. Juz 4-6      Al Nisa' (Women) 
  5. Juz 6-7      Al Ma'idah (The Table Spread) | Overview | Exegesis: | Part I | Part II |    Part III | Part IV |
  6. Juz 7-8      Al-Anʻām (Cattle) 
  7. Juz 8-9      Al A'raf (The Faculty of Discernment) 
  8. Juz 9-10    Al Anfal (Spoils of War) 
  9. Juz 10-11  Al Tawbah (Repentance) 
  10. Juz 11       Al Yunus (Jonah) | Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III |  | Part IV |
  11. Juz 11-12  Al Hud | Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV |
  12. Juz 12-13  Yusuf (Joseph) | Overview | Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Lessons |
  13. Juz 13       Al Ra'd (Thunder) | Exegesis |
  14. Ibrahim (Abraham) | Exegesis |
  15. Juz 14       Al-Hijr 
  16. Al Nahl (The Bee) | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |  
  17. Juz 15       Al Isra' (The Night Journey) | Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |  | Part IV |
  18. Juz 15-16  Al Kahf (The Cave) | Overview | Part I | Part II | Part III |  | Part IV |
  19. Maryam (Mary) | Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |
  20. Ta Ha  | Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |
  21. Juz 17       Al Anbiya' (The Prophets) | Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III
  22. Al Hajj (The Pilgrimage) | Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II|
  23. Juz 18       Al Mu'minun (The Believers) |Exegesis: Part I | Part II |
  24. Al Nur (The Light)  | Overview | Exegesis Part I | Part II Part III | Part IV | Part V |
  25. Juz 18-19   Al Furqan (The Criterion) 
  26. Al Shu'ara (The Poets) |Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV | Part V |
  27. Juz 19-20   Al Naml (The Ants) | Overview | Exegesis: | Part I | Part II|
  28. Al Qasas (The Story) | Overview | Exegesis Part I | Exegesis Part II |
  29. Juz 20-21   Al 'Ankabut (The Spider) | Overview | Exegesis |
  30. Al Rum (The Romans) | Historical Background | Exegesis |
  31. Al Luqman
  32. Al Sajdah (Prostration) | Overview | Exegesis / Tafseer |
  33. Juz 21-22   Al Ahzab (The Clans) | Overview | Exegesis | Battle of Trench |
  34. Saba' (Sheba)
  35. Fatir (The Originator)
  36. Juz 22-23   Yā-Sīn  
  37. Al Saffat (Those Ranged in Ranks) | Overview | Exegesis: Part I | Part II | Part III |
  38. Al Sad - The Letter Saad | Overview | Exegesis |
  39. Juz 23-24    Al Zumar (The Throngs) 
  40. Mu'min (Believer) also called Ghafir (Forgiving)
  41. Juz 24-25    Fussilat (Clearly Spelled Out) 
  42. Al Shura (Consultation)
  43. Al Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold)
  44. Al Dukhan (Smoke)
  45. Al Jathiyah (Kneeling Down)
  46. Juz 26         Al Ahqaf (The Sand-Dunes) 
  47. Muhammad (The Praised One)
  48. Al Fath (Victory) | Overview | Exegesis |
  49. Al Hujurat (The Private Apartments) | Overview | Exegesis |
  50. Qaf
  51. Juz 26-27    Al Dhariyat (The Winnowing Winds) 
  52. Al Tur (The Mount)
  53. Al Najm (The Unfolding)
  54. Al Qamar (The Moon)
  55. Ar Rahman (The Most Merciful) | Part 1 (Introduction) | Part 2 (Explanation)
  56. Al Waqi'ah (The Inevitable Event)
  57. Al Hadid (Iron)
  58. Juz 28       Al Mujadilah (The Pleading Woman) 
  59. Al Hashr (The Gathering)
  60. Al Mumtahinah (The Examined One)
  61. Al Saff (The Ranks)
  62. Al Jumu'ah (The Congregation)
  63. Al Munafiqoon (The Hypocrites)
  64. Al Taghabun (Loss and Gain)
  65. Al Talaq (Divorce)
  66. Al Tahrim (Prohibition)
  67. Juz 29      Al Mulk (Dominion) 
  68. Al Qalam (The Pen)
  69. Al Haaqah (The Inevitable Reality)
  70. Al Ma'arij (The Ascending Stairways)
  71. Nuh (Noah)
  72. Al Jinn (The Jinn - The Unseen Beings)
  73. Al Muzzammil (The Enshrouded One)
  74. Al Muddaththir (The Enfolded One)
  75. Al Qiyamah (Resurrection)
  76. Al Insan (Man)
  77. Al Mursalat (Those Sent Forth)
  78. Juz 30      An Naba' (The Great News) - 
  79. Al Nazi'at (Those Who Pull Out)
  80. 'Abasa (He Frowned)
  81. Al Takwir (Shrouding in Darkness)
  82. Al Infitar (The Cleaving Asunder)
  83. Al Mutaffifin (Those Who Give Short Measure)
  84. Al Inshiqaq (The Splitting Asunder)
  85. Al Buruj (The Great Constellation)
  86. Al Tariq (That Which Comes in the Night)
  87. Al A'la (The All-Highest)
  88. Al Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming Event)
  89. Al Fajr (The Daybreak)
  90. Al Balad (The City)
  91. Al Shams (The Sun)
  92. Al Layl (The Night)
  93. Al Duha (The Bright Morning Hours)
  94. Al Sharh (The Relief / Comfort)
  95. Al Tin (The Fig)
  96. Al Alaq (The Clinging Clot)
  97. Al Qadr (The Power / Destiny) | Overview | Exegesis |
  98. Al Bayyinah (The Evidence of Truth)
  99. Al Zalzalah (The Earthquake)
  100. Al 'Adiyat (The Chargers)
  101. Al Qari'ah (The Sudden Calamity)
  102. Al Takathur (Greed for More and More)
  103. Al 'Asr (The Time) | Overview | Summary |
  104. Al Humazah (The Slanderer)
  105. Al Fil (The Elephant)
  106. Al Quraysh
  107. Al Ma'un (Small Kindnesses)
  108. Al Kawthar (Good in Abundance)
  109. Al Kafirun (The Unbelievers / Those Who Deny the Truth)
  110. Al Nasr (Divine Help / Succour)
  111. Al Masad (The Twisted Strands)
  112. Al Ikhlas (The Declaration of [God's] Oneness)
  113. Al Falaq (The Rising Dawn)
  114. Al Nas (Mankind)
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. [2] 
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources:
In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites.
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