Saturday 8 July 2023

Surah Al Kauthar (ٱلْكَوْثَرَ): Exegesis/Tafseer of 108th Chapter of Qur'an

Today we share the exegesis / tafseer of the shortest sürah of the Qur'an, Sūrah Al Kauthar (The Abundance), which is the one hundred and eighth sürah with only three āyāt, part of the 30th Juzʼ of the Qur'ān. The Surah has been so designated after the word al-Kauthar (ٱلْكَوْثَرَ) occurring in the first verse. The surah is also spelt as "al-Kawthar" in certain formats.

This surah is exclusive to the life of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, and aims at reassuring him of Allah's countless blessings that he will receive in due course of his otherwise arduous life as messenger of Allah. This surah in fact was revealed in a timeframe after the death of son of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. This incident gave a chance to his opponents, the non-Muslims of Makkah to mock him. While they had been labelling Prophet Muhammad ﷺ of being a false prophet, a magician or of sorcery, now they had another taunt to antagonize Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.  They said that he was a man with no posterity, referring to the death of his son.  One of them once remarked, "Do not be bothered with him; he will die without descendants and that will be the end of his mission."

We have already presented the overview / summary of the sürah, which also includes its recitation in Arabic with English subtitles. Let us now read the verse-by-verse translation and exegesis / tafseer in English. You may also listen to eminent Muslim scholar Nouman Ali Khan explaining the background of the revelation of the Surah in English at the end of this post.

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"
اِنَّاۤ اَعۡطَيۡنٰكَ الۡكَوۡثَرَؕ‏ 
(108:1) (O Prophet), We have surely bestowed upon you good in abundance.
The full meaning of the word kauthar, as used here, cannot perhaps be expressed in one word in any language of the world. This is an intensive form of the noun kathrat which literally means abundance, but the context in which it has been used does not give the meaning of mere abundance but abundance of good, of spiritual benefits and blessings, and of such abundance which is unbounded and limitless, and it does not imply any one good or benefit or blessing but abundance of countless benefits and blessings.

Have a look again at the background of this Surah given in the Introduction. The enemies thought that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) had been completely ruined: he was cut off from the community and had become utterly helpless and powerless; his trade was ruined; his male children who could perpetuate his name were dead; the message that he presented was such that except for a handful of the people no one in entire Arabia, not to speak of Makkah, was prepared to listen to it therefore, failure and disappointment would be his lot as long as he lived and there would be no one in posterity to remember him when he died. Under such conditions when Allah said: "We have granted you the Kauthar," it by itself gave the meaning: Your foolish opponents think that you are ruined and deprived of the good things that you enjoyed before Prophethood, but the fact is that We have favored you with unbounded good and countless blessings." This included the matchless moral qualities which the Holy Prophet was blessed with; this included the great blessings of Prophethood and the Qur'an, the knowledge and wisdom that were granted to him; this included the blessing of Tauhid and also of such a system of life, whose simple and intelligible, rational and natural, and comprehensive principles had the potential to spread throughout the world and of continuing to spread for ever afterwards. This also included the blessing of the exaltation of renown because of which the holy Prophet's blessed name continues to be exalted throughout the world since 1400 years and will continue to be so exalted till Resurrection.

This also included the blessing that by his preaching eventually such a world-wide community came into being, which became the standard-bearer of Truth in the world for ever, which can claim to have produced the greatest number of the pious, virtuous and noble charactered men in any one nation, and which even when corrupted and deprived has the highest good in it as against every other nation of the world. This also included the blessing that the Holy Prophet during his very lifetime witnessed his invitation and message attaining to the highest success and the preparation of a community which had the power to dominate the world. This also included the blessing that although on his being deprived of the male offspring the enemies thought he would be lost to posterity, yet Allah not only blessed him with the spiritual offspring in the form of Muslims, who will continue to exalt his name in the world till Resurrection but also granted him from his one daughter, Hadrat Fatimah, the natural progeny, who have spread throughout world and whose only mark of distinction and pride is that they trace their descent from him.

These are the blessings which the people have seen and witnessed as to how abundantly Allah has blessed His Holy prophet within the world. In addition, Kauthar also implies two other great blessings which Allah will bestow on him in the Hereafter. We had no means of knowing these; therefore the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) himself gave us news of them, and told us that Kauthar also implied them. First, the Fountain of Kauthar, which he will be granted on the Resurrection Day in the Plain of Assembly; second, the River Kauthar, which he will be granted in Paradise. About both such a large number of the Ahadith have been reported from him through such a large number of the reporters that there remains no doubt about their authenticity.

What the Holy Prophet said about the fountain of Kauthar is explained separately in one of our exclusive earlier posts: What is Al Kauthar (ٱلْكَوْثَرَ)

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
The term kawthar is an intensive form of the noun kathrah (Zamakhshari), which, in its turn, denotes "copiousness", "multitude" or "abundance"; it also occurs as an adjective with the same connotation (Qamus, Lisan al-'Arab, etc.). In the above context, which is the sole instance of its use in the Qur'an, al-kawthar obviously relates to the abundant bestowal on the Prophet of all that is good in an abstract, spiritual sense, like revelation, knowledge, wisdom, the doing of good works, and dignity in this world and in the hereafter (Razi); with reference to the believers in general, it evidently signifies the ability to acquire knowledge, to do good works, to be kind towards all living beings, and thus to attain to inner peace and dignity.

Yusuf Ali Explanation
Al-Kauthar literally means "good in abundance". It is the abundant bounty which Allah bestowed on Prophet Muhammad (peace be on him). This includes a river (or fountain) in heaven of this name which Allah has promised the Prophet (peace be on him).

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
 The actual word is الۡكَوۡثَر. The obligation owed to it is mentioned ahead by the words: فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَ انۡحَرۡ (so pray you only for your Almighty and offer sacrifice from him alone). It is evident from this that it refers to the Baytullāh because it is the only place where both these rituals of worship are combined with full majesty. If a person reflects on this verse, he will gather that it is only this place of worship which is a treasure of abundant good for every Muslim and it also the metaphorical manifestation of the stream of Kawthar that dwellers of Paradise will drink from. This stream too will be given to the Prophet (sws) as is evident from many narratives. 

Imām Ḥamīd al-Dīn Farāhī writes:
  • If anyone reflects on the features and characteristics of the stream of كَوْثَر which was shown to the Prophet (sws) during the holy ascension, he will become aware of the fact that the stream of كَوْثَر is the spiritual manifestation of the Baytullāh and its surrounding atmosphere. The common element in the various Aḥādīth which describe كَوْثَر is that it is a water stream on the sides of which are built palaces of hollow pearls. Its floor is of topaz, coral and rubies. The utensils in it are like stars of the heavens, its water is whiter than milk, sweeter than honey and cooler than ice. Its mud is more fragrant than musk. Birds whose necks are like those of the animals of sacrifice descend on it. (See: al-Bukhārī, nos. 4583, 6095; al-Tirmidhī, no. 2465; Ibn Mājah, no. 4325; Musnad Aḥmad, no. 5643; Al-Mu‘jam al-kabīr, no. 2960)
  • … Stop for a moment and think of the fact that from all over the world caravans of devotees and zealots gather around this blessed House to quench their fondness for the Almighty. Elated spiritually, do not the pebbles of this holy valley seem more magnificent than rubies and emeralds, its mud more fragrant than musk and the tents of the pilgrims around it more beautiful than domes of pearls? Then just take a look at the pilgrims and at the lines of the camels which are to be sacrificed. Are these not the swarms of the long necked birds near the fountain? (Farāhī, Majmū‘ah-i tafāsīr, 421-422)
One of the objectives of Prophet Muḥammad (sws) was to once again cleanse the House of God of the filth of polytheism and make it for the whole world a centre of monotheism for which it was built by Abraham (sws) by his own hands. When the Qur’ān declared that the Almighty had granted him the treasure of abundant good, it meant that the Quraysh would be deposed; the political leadership of Arabia which they had as a result of their relationship with the House of God would be confiscated from them, and its custodianship would be taken from them and handed to Muḥammad (sws) and his followers. Viewed thus, these constituted a great glad tiding given to him at the time of his migration to Madīnah and acquittal from the disbelievers of his nation.

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانۡحَرۡ ؕ‏ 
(108:2) So offer Prayer and sacrifice to your Lord alone.
Different commentaries of it have been reported from different scholars. Some of them take the Prayer to mean the five times obligatory Prayer (salat); some take it to imply the Prayer of `Id al-Adha, and some say that it implies the Prayer itself. Likewise, the meaning of wanhar (وَانۡحَرۡ) and sacrifice according to some illustrious scholars, is to place the right hand over the left hand and to fold them on the chest in the Prayer; some say that it implies raising both hands with Allahu Akbar at the commencement of the Prayer; some say that it implies raising both hands at the commencement of the Prayer, at bowing for Ruku ` and after rising from Ruku `; and some say that it means performing the `Id al-Adha Prayer and then offering the animal sacrifice. But if the context in which this command has been enjoined, is considered, its meaning clearly seems to be: "O Prophet, when your Lord has granted you so many and so splendid blessing, then you should perform the Prayer only for His sake and offer sacrifice only for His sake." This Command was given in the environment when not only the pagans of Quraish but the pagans of entire Arabia and the world worshiped their self-made gods and offered sacrifices at their shrines. Therefore, the intention of the Command is "Contrary to the polytheistic practice, you should remain steadfast to your creed: your Prayer is only for Allah and your sacrifice also is for Him alone, as it has been said at another place: `Declare, O Prophet, my salat and my sacrifice and my life and my death are all for Allah, Lord of the universe, Who has no partner with Him. This is what I have been enjoined, and I am the first to surrender to Him.'(Al-An`am:162-163). This same meaning has been explained of it by Ibn 'Abbas. `Ata`, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Hasan Bari, Qatadah, Muhammad bin Ka`b al-Kurzi, Dahhak, Rabi` bin Anas, `Ata` al-Khurasani and many other major commentators (may Allah bless them all) (Ibn Jarir). However, this by itself is correct that when the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) enforced by Allah's command the practice of the `Id al-Adha Prayer and the offering of animal sacrifice at Madinah, he himself gave the first place to the Prayer (salat and the second to the sacrifice, as commanded in the verses: Inna salati wa nusuki and fa-salli li-Rabbika wanhar, and enjoined an the Muslims also to do the same, i.e. they should first perform the Prayer and then offer the sacrifice. This is neither the explanation of this verse nor the occasion of its revelation but a deduction made by the Holy Prophet from these verses and his deduction of injunctions also is a kind of Divine inspiration. 

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice.) meaning, `just as We have given you the abundant goodness in this life and the Hereafter -- and from that is the river that has been described previously -- then make your obligatory and optional prayer, and your sacrifice (of animals) solely and sincerely for your Lord. Woship Him alone and do not associate any partner with him. And sacrifice pronouncing His Name alone, without ascribing any partner to Him.' 
  • This is as Allah says:(قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاَتِى وَنُسُكِى وَمَحْيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِى للَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ - لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَاْ أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ Say: "Verily, my Salah, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of all that exists. He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.'') (6:162-163) Ibn `Abbas, `Ata,' Mujahid, `Ikrimah and Al-Hasan all said, "This means with this the Budn should be sacrificed.'' Qatadah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi`, `Ata' Al-Khurasani, Al-Hakam, Isma`il bin Abi Khalid and others from the Salaf have all said the same. This is the opposite of the way of the idolators, prostrating to other than Allah and sacrificing in other than His Name. 
  • Allah says: (وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ And do not eat from what Allah's Name has not been pronounced over, indeed that is Fisq.) (6:121)
Yusuf Ali Explanation:  
He who grants these blessings is Allah, and to Allah alone must we turn in adoration and thanksgiving, and in sacrifice. Nahr=sacrifice: in a restricted ritual sense, the sacrifice of camels: see n. 2813 to xxii. 36. But the ritual is a mere Symbol. Behind it is a deep spiritual meaning: the meat slaughtered feeds the poor, and the slaughter is a symbol of the self-sacrifice in our hearts. "It is not their meat nor their blood, that reaches Allah: it is your piety that reaches Him" (xxii. 37).

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
Mentioned here is the obligation towards God’s gift called Kawthar. The implication is that the Quraysh also worship their deities in both these rituals ie. the prayer and animal sacrifice; Muḥammad (sws) should however, pray and offer sacrifice only for the One God once he is bestowed with its custodianship; he should also cleanse it from all types of polytheistic practices and religious innovations.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
“So pray to your Lord and sacrifice to Him.” (Verse 2) Having assured the Prophet of this munificent gift, which disproves what the calumniators and wicked schemers say, God directs the Prophet to be completely and sincerely thankful to Him for His bounty. He is to devote himself to Him alone in worship and ritual slaughter, taking no heed whatsoever of any form of idolatry and refusing to participate in the worship rituals offered by idolaters, especially when they invoke anyone other than God in their offerings.

Islam frequently lays emphasis on the pronouncing of God’s name when slaughtering animals. It prohibits anything that is consecrated to any other being, which indicates the importance Islam attaches to the purification of human life from all forms of idolatry and all that leads to it. Because it is based on the principle of God’s oneness in its purest sense, Islam does not aim merely at purifying human imagination and conscience. It pursues idolatry in all its manifestations, striving to eliminate its marks in man’s consciousness, worship rituals and general behaviour. Life, Islam says, is one indivisible entity and must be treated as such. It must be cleansed inside out and completely oriented towards God, in all its aspects: worship, tradition and social behaviour.

اِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الۡاَبۡتَرُ
(108:3) Verily your enemy alone has been cut off from the roots.4 
"Verily your enemy" The word shani' as used, in the original is derived from sha 'n, which means the hatred and spite because of which a person may start ill-treating another. At another place in the Qur'an it has been said: "(And O Muslims,) the enmity of any people should not so provoke you as to turn you away from justice." (AI-Ma'idah: 8). Thus, shani aka (شَانِئَكَ) implies every such person who blinded by his enmity of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) should bring false accusations against him, slander and defame him and vent his personal spite against him by taunting and scoffing at him in every possible way. 

"Has been cut off from the roots" Huwal abtar (هُوَ الۡاَبۡتَرُ): "He himself is abtar", i.e. though he calls you abtar he in fact himself is abtar. Some explanations of abtar have already been given in the Introduction to the Surah. It is derived from batar which means to cut off, but idiomatically it is used in a comprehensive meaning. In the Hadith, the rak ah of the Prayer which is not coupled with another rak'ah is called butaira', i.e. the lonely rak ah. According to another Hadith "Every piece of work, which is in any way important, is abtar if it is started without the glorification and praise of Allah", implying that it is cut off from the root, It has no stability, and it is doomed to failure. A man who fails to achieve his object is abtar as also the one who is deprived of all means and resources. A person who is left with no hope of any good and success in life is also abtar. A person who has been cut off from his family, brotherhood, associates And helpers is also abtar. The word abtar is also used for the man who has no male child, or whose male child or children have died, for after him there remains no one to remember him and he is lost to posterity . after death. In almost all these meanings the disbelieving Quraish called the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) abtar. At this, Allah said: "O Prophet, not you but your enemies are abtar." This was not merely a "reprisal", but a prophecy out of the most important prophecies of the Qur'an, which literally proved true. when it was made, the people regarded the Holy Prophet as abtar, and no one could imagine how the big chiefs of the Quraish would become abtar, who were famous not only in Makkah but throughout Arabia, who were successful in life, rich in worldly wealth and children, who had their associates and helpers everywhere in the country, who enjoyed intimate relations with all the Arabian tribes, being monopolists in trade and managers of Hajj. But not long afterwards the conditions altogether changed. There was a time when on the occasion of the Battle of the Trench (A.H. 5) the Quraish had invaded Madinah with the help of many Arabian and Jewish tribes, and the Holy Prophet being besieged had to resist the enemy by digging a trench around the city. After only three years, in A.H. 8, when he attacked Makkah, the Quraish had no helper and they had to surrender helplessly. After this within a year or so the whole Arabia came under his control, deputations of tribes from all over the country began to visit him to take the oaths of allegiance and his enemies were left utterly helpless and resourceless. Then they were so lost to posterity that even if their children survived, none of them today knows that he is a descendant of Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, As bin Wail, or `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`ait, the enemies of Islam, and even if he knows it, he is not prepared to claim that his ancestors were those people. On the contrary, blessings are being invoked on the children of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) throughout the world; millions and millions of Muslims take pride in bearing relationship to him; hundreds of thousands of people regard it as a mark of honor and prestige to have descended not only from him but from his family and even the families of his Companions. Thus, some one is a Sayyid, another an 'Alavi, and `Abbasi, a Hashmi, a Siddiqi, a Faruqi, an `Uthmani, a Zubairi, or an Ansari, but no one is an Abu Jahli or Abu Lahabi. History has proved that not the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) but his enemies were, and are, abtar.  "

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
(إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الاٌّبْتَرُ For he who hates you, he will be cut off.) meaning, `indeed he who hates you, O Muhammad, and he hates what you have come with of guidance, truth, clear proof and manifest light, he is the most cut off, meanest, lowliest person who will not be remembered. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Qatadah all said, "This Ayah was revealed about Al-`As bin Wa'il. Whenever the Messenger of Allah would be mentioned (in his presence) he would say, `Leave him, for indeed he is a man who is cut off having no descendants. So when he dies he will not be remembered.' Therefore, Allah revealed this Surah.'' Shamir bin `Atiyah said, "This Surah was revealed concerning `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`ayt.'' Ibn `Abbas and `Ikrimah have both said, "This Surah was revealed about Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf and a group of the disbelievers of the Quraysh.'' Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf came to Makkah and the Quraysh said to him, `You are the leader of them (the people). What do you think about this worthless man who is cut off from his people He claims that he is better than us while we are the people of the place of pilgrimage, the people of custodianship (of the Ka`bah), and the people who supply water to the pilgrims.' He replied, `You all are better than him.' 
  • So Allah revealed: (إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الاٌّبْتَرُ For he who hates you, he will be cut off.)'' This is how Al-Bazzar recorded this incident and its chain of narration is authentic. It has been reported that `Ata' said, "This Surah was revealed about Abu Lahab when a son of the Messenger of Allah died. Abu Lahab went to the idolators and said, `Muhammad has been cut off (i.e., from progeny) tonight.' 
  • So concerning this Allah revealed: (إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الاٌّبْتَرُ For he who hates you, he will be cut off.)'' As-Suddi said, "When the male sons of a man died the people used to say, `He has been cut off.'
  • So, when the sons of the Messenger of Allah died they said, `Muhammad has been cut off.' Thus, Allah revealed: (إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الاٌّبْتَرُ For he who hates you, he will be cut off.)'' So they thought in their ignorance that if his sons died, his remembrance would be cut off. Allah forbid! To the contrary, Allah preserved his remembrance for all the world to see, and He obligated all the servants to follow his Law. This will continue for all of time until the Day of Gathering and the coming of the Hereafter. May the blessings of Allah and His peace be upon him forever until the Day of Assembling. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Kawthar, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.
Yusuf Ali Explanation
Hatred and spite are not constructive contributions to the work of this world, but its opposites. Abu Jahl and his Pagan confederates vented their personal spite and venom against the holy Prophet by taunting him with the loss of his two infant sons by Khadija, but where were these venomous detractors a few years afterwards, when the divine Light shone more brilliantly than ever? It was these that were cut off from all future hope, in this world and the next.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
This is a great prophecy which materialized word for word. What is meant is that the Prophet’s enemies spread the propaganda about him that he had invented a new religion; as a result he had been detached from his nation and the centre of his old religion (the Baytullāh) and would now go and live among strangers; he would be like the severed branch of a tree which is bound to wither away. However, it was the verdict of God that He would grant him success and honour both in this world and the next and would uproot all his enemies from that land. He would ensure that no one would remain who would even remember them.

Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
“Surely, he who hates you is the one cut off” (Verse 3) In the first verse, God specified that Muhammad was not the one who had no posterity but, on the contrary, was the one endowed with abundance. In this verse, God throws back the taunt on those who hated and reviled the Prophet. Indeed, God’s promise has come true. For, the influence and legacy of Muhammad’s enemies were short-lived, while his impact on human life and history has grown and deepened. Today we are witnessing the truth of this divine pronouncement as clearly as no one among those addressed by the Qur’an for the first time ever did or imagined.

Faith and goodness cannot be barren. Their influence is both profound and deeprooted. By contrast, falsehood, error and evil may grow and spread quickly, but they ultimately come to nothing.

God’s criteria are different from the criteria laid down by man. Men are often deceived when they vainly believe their sense of judgement to be the criterion. Before us is the eloquent and enduring example of the Prophet. Of what value or interest to humanity have Muhammad’s slanderers and foes been to anyone?

On the other hand, calling others to the religion of God, to truth and goodness, can never be called futile. Neither can the righteous and the true be called deprived or cut off. How can it be, when this message itself comes from, and is supported by, God, the Immortal, the Eternal? But deprived and sterile indeed are disbelief, error and evil as are their votaries, however strong and widespread they may appear to be at any moment.

God affirms the truth; wily opponents are but liars!

You may also like to listen to emient Muslim scholar Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan on the Significance of Surah Al Kawther

وَمَا عَلَيۡنَاۤ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِيۡنُ‏ 
(36:17) and our duty is no more than to clearly convey the Message.”
That is Our duty is only to convey to you the message that Allah has entrusted us with. Then it is for you to accept it or reject it. We have not been made responsible for making you accept it forcibly, and if you do not accept it, we shall not be seized in consequence of your disbelief, you will yourselves be answerable for your actions on Day of Resurrection.
May Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى‎) help us understand Qur'ān and follow the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, which is embodiment of commandments of Allah contained in the Qur'ān. May Allah help us to be like the ones He loves and let our lives be lived helping others and not making others' lives miserable or unlivable. May all our wrong doings, whether intentional or unintentional, be forgiven before the angel of death knocks on our door. 
Reading the Qur'ān should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully. It will also help the Muslims to have grasp over social issues and their answers discussed in the Qur'an and other matter related to inter faith so that they are able to discuss issues with non-Muslims with authority based on refences from Qur'an.

May Allah forgive me if my posts ever imply a piety far greater than I possess. I am most in need of guidance.

Note: When we mention God in our posts, we mean One True God, we call Allah in Islam, with no associates. Allah is the Sole Creator of all things, and that Allah is all-powerful and all-knowing. Allah has no offspring, no race, no gender, no body, and is unaffected by the characteristics of human life.

Please refer to our Reference Page "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, explanation and exegesis of all other chapters of the Qur'an. You may also refer to our Reference Pages for knowing more about Islam and Quran.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation and explanation have been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.  [2]
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources (links to Reference Pages given below):  
  • Tafsir Ibn Khatir
  • Muhammad Asad Translation
  • Al-Quran, Yusuf Ali Translation
  • Javed Ahmad Ghamidi / Al Mawrid
  • Qur'an Wiki
  • Verse by Verse Qur'an Study Circle
  • Tafsir Nouman Ali Khan
  • Towards Understanding the Quran
In addition, references of other sources which have been explored have also been given below. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites:

Calligraphy by Shahid Rana | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 67 | 8 | 9 | 10 |

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