Friday 23 April 2021

Surah Al-Jumuʿah (The Friday Congregation): Tafsir / Exegesis 62nd Chapter of Qur'an

Sūrah Al-Jumuʿah " الجمعة " is the sixty second sürah with 11 āyāt with two rukus, part of the 28th Juzʼ  of the Qur'ān. The sürah derives its name from the sentence idha nudiya-lis-salat-imin-yaum-il- Jumu'ati  " اِذَا نُوۡدِىَ لِلصَّلٰوةِ مِنۡ يَّوۡمِ الۡجُمُعَةِ  " of verse 9. Although in this Surah injunctions about the Friday congregational Prayer also have been given, yet "Jumu'ah" is not the title of its subject-matter as a whole, but this name too, like the names of other Surahs, is only a symbolic title.
The period of the revelation of the first section (vv. 1-8) is A. H. 7, and probably it was sent down, on the occasion of the conquest of Khyber or soon after it. Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir have related on the authority of Hadrat Abu Hurairah that he and other Companions were sitting in the Holy Prophet's assembly when these verses were revealed. About Abu Hurairah it is confirmed historically that he entered Islam after the truce of Hudaibiyah and before the conquest of Khyber, and Khyber was conquered, according to Ibn Hisham, in Muharram, and, according to Ibn Sa`d, in Jamadi al-Awwal, A.H. 7. Thus presumably Allah might have sent down these verses, addressing the Jews, when their last stronghold had fallen to the Muslims, or these might have been revealed when, seeing the fate of Khyber, all the Jewish settlements of northern Hijaz had surrendered to the Islamic government. For details, click here.
The second section (vv. 9-11) was sent down many years later, was appended to this Surah because in it Allah has bestowed Friday on the Muslims as against the Sabbath of the Jews, and Allah wanted to warn the Muslims not to treat their Friday as the Jews had treated their Sabbath. This section was sent down on an occasion when a trade caravan arrived in Madinah right at the time of the Friday congregational service and hearing its din and drum the audience, except for 12 men, left the Prophet's Mosque and rushed out to the caravan, although the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) at that time was delivering the Sermon. Thereupon it was enjoined that after the call is sounded for the Friday Prayer all trade and business and other occupations become forbidden. The believers should then suspend every kind of transaction and hasten to the remembrance of Allah. However, when the Prayer is over, they have the right to disperse in the land to resume their normal occupations. This section could be made an independent Surah in view of the commandments that it contains about the congregational service on Friday, and could also be included in some other Surah, but, instead, it has been included here particularly in the verses in which the Jews have been warned of the causes of their evil end. Its wisdom in our opinion is the same as we have explained above.

This is the sixth Sura in the Madinah series of short surahs which began with S. lvii, The special theme here is the need for mutual contact in the Community, worship and understanding: for the spirit of the Message is for all, ignorant and learned, in order that they may be purified and may learn wisdom. 

This surah is a Al-Musabbihat (“The Praisers,” is the title given to those Surahs of the Qur’an, which begin with Subhana (Glory to), or Sabbaha (he glorified), or Sabbaha (he glorifies), Sabbih (glorify thou) and 'Yusabbihu'.) surah because it begins with the glorification of Allah as can be seen in the translation of the first ayah below:
[1] Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth glorifies Allah-the Sovereign, the Holy, the All-Mighty and the All-Wise! 
As explained above. the sürah has been divided into two Ruku as under:
  • Ruku One:  Verses 1- 8: Wherein verses 1-4 explain appointment of Muhammad ﷺ as a Rasool by Allah, while verses 5-8 show rebuttal of Allah about claim of Jews to be the favorites of God to the exclusion of others 
  • Ruku Two: Verses 9-11: 9-11 mention the Commandment relating to the obligation of Friday Prayers.
We have already presented the overview / summary of the sürah. Let us now read the verse by verse translation and exegesis / tafseer in English. 

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"

Ruku One:  Verses 1- 8
یُسَبِّحُ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ الۡمَلِکِ الۡقُدُّوۡسِ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡحَکِیۡمِ  
( 1 )   Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth is exalting Allah, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
For explanation, sec explanation of verse 1 of Surah 57. AI-Hadid, and verse 23 of Surah 59. AI-Hashr above. 

This introduction bears a deep relevance to the theme that follows. In spite of the fact that the Jews of Arabia were witnessing clear signs of Prophethood in the person of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) and his high character and works and in spite of the clear good news given by the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) in the Torah, which only applied to him, they were denying him only because they did not want to acknowledge the prophet hood of a person who did not belong to their own community and race. They openly proclaimed that they would believe only in that which had come to them, and would not accept any teaching, which came through a non-Israelite prophet, even if it was from God. For this attitude in the following verses they have been reproved. 

Hence the reason for beginning the discourse with the introductory sentence. 
First, it says that everything in the universe is glorifying Allah; that is, the entire universe testifies that Allah is free from all those faults and weaknesses because of which the Jews have formed the concept of their racial superiority. He is not related to anyone: He has nothing to do with favoritism: He treats all His creatures with equal justice, mercy and care. No particular race and nation is His favorite so that He may be bound to bless it whatever it may do; and He is not prejudiced against any race or nation so that He may deprive it of His bounties even if it possesses all the good qualities. Then, it says that He is the Sovereign; that is, no worldly power can restrict His authority and powers, as if to say: "You, O Jews, are His servants and subjects. 'It is not for you to decide whom He should appoint His Messenger, and whom He should not, for your guidance. "
Then it says that He is Holy; that is, HE is far exalted and glorified that His judgments may be mistaken. Human judgments may have mistakes but His decrees are perfect. In the end, two more attributes of Allah have been mentioned: that He is All-Mighty, i.e. none can fight Him and win and that He is All-Wist, i.e. whatever He does, it is always the very demand of wisdom, and His plans and designs are so well-planned that none in the world can hinder and frustrate them.

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir: The Virtues of Surat Al-Jumu`ah: Ibn `Abbas and Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger used to recite Surat Al-Jumu`ah and Surat Al-Munafiqin during the Friday Prayer. Muslim collected this Hadith in his Sahih.

Everything praises and glorifies Allah Allah states that everything in the heavens and the earth. 

Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah: (Glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise) (17:44) 

Allah said, (الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ the King, the Holy,) meaning that He is the Owner and King of the heavens and the earth Who has perfect control over their affairs. He is the Holy, free of all shortcomings, His attributes are perfect, (العَزِيزُ الحَكِيمُ the Almighty, the All-Wise.) whose explanation is already discussed in many places. 

Yusuf Ali  Explanation: See explanation to lix. 24 (reproduced below) 

Verse 24 Surah 59 Al Hashr: Thus the argument of the Sura is rounded off on the same note as was struck at the beginning lix. 1. The first verse and the last verse of the Sura are the same, except as regards the tense of the verb sabbaha. In the first verse it is the optative form of the preterite sabbaha: everything declares the Glory of Allah! After the illustrations given, the declaratory form of the aorist is appropriate, yusabbihu: "everything doth declare the Glory of Allah'.

where I have explained the difference in signification between sabbaha and yusabbihu. The latter form is used here, to express an actual fact. 'Everything declares the Praises and Glory of Allah, because Allah's mercies extend to all His creatures: He sends His Revelation for the benefit of the ignorant and unlettered as well as for those who have learning in their midst, especially as the latter are apt, by the very weight of their ponderous learning, to miss the real point and spirit of Allah's Message.'

See lix. 23, and explanation (reproduced herein under)

Verse 23 Surah 59 Al Hashr: How can a translator reproduce the sublimity and the comprehensiveness of the magnificent Arabic words, which mean so much in a single symbol? (1) "The Sovereign" in our human language implies the one undisputed authority which is entitled to give commands and to receive obedience, and which in fact receives obedience; the power which enforces law and justice. (2) Human authority may be misused, but in the title "the Holy One", we postulate a Being free from all stain or evil, and replete with the highest Purity. (3) "Salam" has not only the idea of Peace as opposed to Conflict, but wholeness as opposed to defects: hence our paraphrase "Source of Peace and Perfection". (4) Mu-min, one who entertains Faith, who gives Faith to others, who is never false to the Faith that others place in him: hence our paraphrase "Guardian of Faith". (5) "Preserver of Safety"; guarding all from danger, corruption, loss, etc.; the word is used for the Qur-an in v. 51. These are the attributes of kindness and benevolence: in the next note are described the attributes of power.

Here we have two of the divine attributes repeated from lix. 23 and two from the end of lix. 24, implying a reminiscence of all the beautiful divine attributes mentioned in that passage. 

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation: This is an introductory sentence. The indefinite verb یُسَبِّحُ in it testifies to the continual and incessant nature of the verb. The implication is that since God is King, He reveals whenever He wants His directive that has to be followed; similarly, since He is Flawless, He cannot remain unconcerned with the good and evil of His servants; likewise, since He is Almighty, He is not overawed by others in His decision; moreover, since He is Wise, whatever He does is done with a specific purpose and under a scheme; none of His acts are purposeless. Hence if the Jews are objecting to the sending of a messenger among the unlettered Arabs, they should reflect on whose decision they are objecting. Everything in the heavens and earth glorify Him; He is above showing bias to any one. If these Jews do not accept this decision of His, then it is up to them. This decision shall be implemented come what may in spite of their dislike.

Nouman Ali Khan Explanation: the first ayah of the surah mentions four names of Allah, as opposed to a typical standard two names of Allah. So Allah says: Al-Malik, Al-Quddous, Al-Aziz, Al-Hakim.

It’s incredible that these four names of Allah then correspond perfectly to the next ayah in which Allah does not describe Himself, but describes what His messenger does and what he was sent to do.

Allah (SWT) says:

هُوَ الَّذِىۡ بَعَثَ فِى الۡاُمِّيّٖنَ رَسُوۡلًا مِّنۡهُمۡ يَتۡلُوۡا عَلَيۡهِمۡ اٰيٰتِهٖ وَيُزَكِّيۡهِمۡ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الۡكِتٰبَ وَالۡحِكۡمَةَ وَاِنۡ كَانُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ لَفِىۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِيۡنٍۙ‏ 
( 2 )   It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom - although they were before in clear error -
" He it is Who has sent to the gentiles a Messenger from among themselves," Here the word ummi (gentile) has been used as a Jewish term and there is a subtlety in it. The verse means: "The All-Mighty and All-Wise Allah has raised a Messenger among the Arabs whom the Jews contemptuously consider the gentiles and much below themselves, The Messenger has not risen of his own wish and will, but has been raised by Him Who is the Sovereign of the universe, Who is All-Mighty and All-Wise, Whose power can be resisted and opposed only to one's own loss and peril.

One should know that the word ummi has occurred in the Qur'an at several places but in different meanings at different places. At one place it has been used for the people who do not possess any revealed scripture, which they may he following, as AI-'Imran: 20, where it 'has been said: "Ask those who possess the Book and those who do not possess (umnris); 'Have you accepted Islam`''" Here, the ummis imply the Arab polytheists, and they have been regarded as a separate class from the followers of the Book, i.e. the Jews and the Christians. At another place, it has been used for the illiterate people among the Jews and Christians, who are ignorant of the Book of Allah, as in Al-Baqarah: 78: "Among the Jews there are some illiterate people (ummis) who have no knowledge of the Book but are guided by mere conjecture and guess-work. " At still another place, this word has been used purely as a Jewish term, which implies all the non-Jewish people, as in Al-'Imran: 75: (The actual cause of this dishonesty of theirs is that they say:) We are not to be called to account for out behavior towards the non-Jews (ummis) This third meaning of ummi is implied in the verse tinder discussion. It is a synonym of the Hebrew word goyim, which has been translated gentiles in the English Bible and implies all the non-Jewish or the non-Israelite people of the world.

But the real significance of this Jewish term cannot be understood only by this explanation of it. The Hebrew word goyim originally was used only in the meaning of a nation, but gradually the Jews reserved it first for the nation other then themselves, then they gave it the special meaning that all the nations other than the Jews were un-civilized, irreligious, unclean and contemptible; so much so that in its connotations of hatred and contempt this word even surpassed the Greek term 'barbarian' which they used for all the non-Greeks. In rabbinical literature, goyim are such contemptible people, who cannot be considered human, who cannot be made companions in a journey, who cannot be saved even if one of them is drowning. The Jews believed that the Messiah of the future would destroy all the goyim and burn them to annihilation. (For further explanation, see E.N. 64 of Al-'Imran). 

"one who rehearses to them His verses, purifies their lives, and imparts to them the Book and the Wisdom" These characteristics of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be piece) have been mentioned at four places in the Qur'an and everywhere with a different object. These have been mentioned in AI-Baqarah: t29 to tell the Arabs that the mission of the Prophet, which they were regarding as a calamity and affliction for themselves, was indeed a great blessing for which the Prophets Abraham and Ishmael (peace be upon them) had been praying for their children. In Al-Baqarah: 151 these have been mentioned to exhort the Muslims to recognize the true worth of the Holy Prophet and to derive full benefit from the blessing which they had been granted in the form of his Apostleship. These have been reiterated in AI 'Imran: 164 to make the hypocrites and the people of weak faith realize what great favor Allah had done them by raising His Messenger among them, and how foolish they were in not appreciating this. Now, here in this Surah these have been repeated for the fourth time with the object to tell the Jews: 'The mission that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessing) is performing in front of you, is evidently the mission of a Messenger. He is reciting the Revelations of Allah, the language, themes and style of which testify that these arc indeed Divine Revelations. He is purifying and reforming the lives of the people, cleansing their morals and habits And dealings of every evil element, and adorning them with the finest moral qualities. This is the same task which all the Prophets before him have been performing. Then he does not rest content only with the recitation of the Revelations, but he is making the people understand the real aim of the Divine Book by word and deed and by the practical model of his life and imparting to them the wisdom and knowledge which none but the Prophets have imparted so far. This very character and way of life and practical model is the conspicuous characteristic of the Prophets by which they are recognized. Then how stubborn you arc that you refuse to recognize and believe in the Messenger whose truth is manifestly proved by his wonderful works only because Allah has not raised him among you but among the people whom you call the ummis (gentiles). 

"although before that they were in utter error;" This is another proof of the Holy Prophet's Prophethood, which has been presented to open eyes of the Jews. These people had been living in Arabia for centuries and no aspect of the religious, moral, social and cultural life of the Arabs was hidden from them. Referring to the state of their previous life it is being said: "You are an eye-witness of the revolution that has taken place in the lift of this nation within a few years under the guidance and leadership of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings). You arc fully aware of the condition in which these people were involved before embracing Islam: you arc also aware of their transformation afterwards, and you arc also witnessing the condition of those people of this very nation, who have not yet embraced Islam, Is the clear and manifest difference which even a blind man can perceive not enough to convince you that this revolution can be brought about by none but a Prophet?”

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir: The Favor that Allah granted by sending Muhammad - Allah the Exalted said, (He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger from among themselves,) the word `unlettered' here refers to the Arabs. 

Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah, (And say to those who were given the Scripture and those who are illiterates: "Do you submit yourselves If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the message; and Allah is All-Seer of (His) servants.) (3:20) Mentioning the unlettered ones in specific here does not mean that Muhammad was only sent to them, because the blessing to the Arabs is greater than that of other nations. 
In another Ayah: Allah said, (And warn your tribe of near kindred.) (26:214) These Ayat do not negate Allah's statements,
(Say: "O mankind! verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.) (7:158), and,
(that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.) (6:19) and in His statement about the Qur'an,
(But those of the groups that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place.) (11:17) There are other Ayat that indicate that his Message is universal. He, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, was sent to all people, mankind and the Jinns alike. We mentioned this meaning before in Surat Al-An`am producing various Ayat and Hadiths. All praise and thanks are to due to Allah. This Ayah testifies that Allah has indeed accepted the invocation of His friend Ibrahim when he supplicated Allah to send a Messenger to the people of Makkah from among them their own. One who will recite to them Allah's statements, purify them and teach them the Book and the Hikmah. So, Allah -- all praise and thanks be to Him -- sent him when the Messengers ceased and the way was obscure. Indeed it was a time when it was most needed. Especially since Allah hated the people of the earth, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, except for a few of the People of the Scripture, who kept to the true faith Allah the Exalted sent to `Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him. 

This is why Allah said, (He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger from among themselves, reciting to them His Ayat, purifying them, and teaching them the Book and the Hikmah. And verily, they had been before in manifest error.) In ancient times, the Arabs used to adhere by the religion of Ibrahim, peace be upon him. They later changed, corrupted and contradicted it, choosing polytheism instead of Tawhid and doubts instead of certainty. They invented a religion that Allah did not legislate, just as the People of the Scriptures did when they changed and corrupted their Divine Books. Allah sent Muhammad , with a great divine legislation, perfect religion that is suitable for all humans and Jinns. In it, there is guidance and explanations of all that they need in this life and the Hereafter. It draws them closer to Paradise and Allah's pleasure and takes them away from the Fire and earning Allah's anger. In it, there is the final judgement for all types of doubts and suspicion for all major and minor matters of the religion. In Muhammad , Allah gathered all the good qualities of the Prophets before him, and gave him what He has never given the earlier and later generations of mankind. May Allah's peace and blessings be on Muhammad until the Day of Judgement.

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
The Unlettered: as applied to a people, it refers to the Arabs, in comparison with the People of the Book, who had a longer tradition of learning, but whose failure is referred to in verse 5 below. As applied to individuals, it means that Allah's Revelation is for the benefit of all men, whether they have worldly learning or not.

His Signs: Allah's wonderful Signs in His Creation and in His ordering of the world. It may include the Verses of the Qur-an, but they are more specifically referred to as "Book" in the next line but one.

Cf. ii. 129, and explanation (reproduced below). 
Verse 129 Surah ii Al Baqarah: "Our Lord! send amongst them an Apostle of their own who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom and sanctify them; for Thou art the Exalted in Might the Wise."
How beautiful this prayer is, and how aptly it comes in here in the argument! Such Paganism or star-worship or planet-worship as there was in Abraham's time was first cleared out of Mecca by Abraham. This is the chief meaning of "sanctification" or purification in ii. 125, although of course physical cleanliness is (in physical conditions) a necessary element of purification in the higher sense. Abraham and his elder son Ismail then built the Ka'ba and established the rites and usages of the sacred city. He was thus the founder of the original Islam (which is as old as mankind) in Arabia. As becomes a devout man, he offers and dedicates the work to God in humble supplication, addressing Him as the All-Hearing and the All-Knowing. He then asks for a blessing on himself and his progeny generally, both the children of his eldest-born Ismail and his younger son Isaac. With prophetic vision he foresees that there will be corruption and backsliding in both branches of his family: Mecca will house 360 idols, and Jerusalem will become a harlot city (Ezekiel xvi. 15), a city of abomination. But the light of Islam will shine, and reclaim the lost people in both branches and indeed in all the world. So he prays for God's mercy, addressing Him as the Oft-Returning Most Merciful. And finally he foresees in Mecca an Apostle teaching the people as one "of their own", and in their own beautiful Arabic language; he asks for a blessing on Muhammad's ministry, appealing to the Power and Wisdom of God.
Read again the attributes in the last verse. Allah is full Sovereign, and therefore cares for all His subjects, including the meanest and most ignorant, and sends His prophets or messengers to them. He is the Holy One, and therefore purifies and sanctifies those who were steeped in superstition and wickedness. He is Exalted in Power, and therefore He can confer all these blessings on the most unlikely people (verse 3), and no one can stay His hand. He is wise, and therefore He instructs in wisdom, both through written Scriptures, and in other ways, e.g., by means of a knowledge of life and its laws, and an understanding of His wonderful universe.

Previous ignorance or error is no bar to a person or nation receiving the blessings of Allah's revelation, provided such person or nation has the will to come to Allah and the capacity to bear His Message. For an instance of incapacity through arrogance, see verse 6 below.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
The term "unlettered people" (ummiyun) denotes a nation or community who had not previously had a revealed scripture of their own (Razi). The designation of the Prophet as a man "from among themselves" is meant, in this context, to stress the fact that he, too, was unlettered (ummi) in the primary sense of this word (cf. 7:157 and {158}), and could not, therefore, have "invented" the message of the Qur'an or "derived" its ideas from earlier scriptures.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation: The addressees of this surah are those among the Ishmaelites who had accepted faith but who were guilty of blemishes in giving due importance to the messenger sent to them and of showing obedience to him. Their attention is directed to the fact that this messenger has been sent to them from among themselves so that they are able to come out of the darkness of ignorance which has engulfed them. The implication is that those who are blessed with this favour should be thankful to God, hold it dear to them and also invite others to give due importance to it.

Nouman Ali Khan Explanation: After verse 1, Allah says:
{It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom – although they were before in clear error} (62:2)
So He sent among them a messenger who does four things for them:
  • he narrates on to them His miraculous signs,
  • he purifies them,
  • he teaches them The Law,
  • he teaches them wisdom.
وَّاٰخَرِيۡنَ مِنۡهُمۡ لَمَّا يَلۡحَقُوۡا بِهِمۡ​ؕ وَهُوَ الۡعَزِيۡزُ الۡحَكِيۡمُ‏  
( 3 )   And [to] others of them who have not yet joined them. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
"and (He has also) sent him to those others who have not yet joined them." That is, the Prophethood of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) is not restricted only to the Arabs but is meant for other nations and races as well, who have not yet joined the believers, but are going to be born till the Last Day. The word minhum " مِنۡهُمۡ  " (of them) in the original can have two meanings:
(1) "That those other people will be of the ummis i.e. the non-Israelite nations of the world;" and
(2) "that they will be believers in Muhammad (upon whom be Allah s peace and blessings), though they have not yet joined the believers, but will join them later on. " Thus, this verse is one of those verses which explicitly state that the Message of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) is meant for all mankind for ever. The other places where this theme has o occurred in the Qur'an are: AI-'Imran: 19, Al-A'raf: 158, Al-Anbiya': 107, AI-Furqan: 1, Saba 28. (For further explanation, see EN 47 of Surah Saba). 
"He is the Most Mighty, the Most Wise." That is, it is a manifestation of Allah's own power and wisdom that among an un-civilized, , un-lettered people He has raised a great Prophet, whose teachings arc so revolutionary and contain such eternal and universal principles as can provide a sound basis for the whole of mankind to be a single unified community, which can obtain guidance from those principles for ever. An impostor, however hard he may have tried, could not have attained this position and rank. Not to speak of a backward people like the Arabs; even the most intelligent and talented man of the most advanced nation of the world cannot have the power that he may revolutionist a nation so completely, and then give such comprehensive principles to the world that all mankind may follow it as one community and be able to run a universal and all-pervasive system of one way of life and one civilization for ever. This is a miracle which has taken place only by Allah's power, and only Allah on the basis of His wisdom has chosen the person, the country and the nation for it.

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir: Imam Abu `Abdullah Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy upon him, recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "We were sitting with the Prophet , when Surat Al-Jumu`ah was revealed to him;

(وَءَاخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُواْ بِهِمْ And others among them who have not yet joined them.) They said, `Who are they, O Allah's Messenger' The Prophet did not reply until they repeated the question thrice. At that time, Salman Al-Farisi was with us. 

So Allah's Messenger placed his hand on Salman, saying, (If faith were on Ath-Thurayya (Pleiades), even then some men or a man from these people would attain it.)'' Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa`i, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith. This Hadith indicates that Surat Al-Jumu`ah was revealed in Al-Madinah and that the Messenger's Message is universal. 

The Prophet explained Allah's statement, (وَءَاخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ And others among them) by mentioning Persia. This is why the Prophet sent messages to the kings of Persia and Rome, among other kings, calling them to Allah the Exalted and to follow what he was sent with. 

This is why Mujahid and several others said that Allah's statement, (And others among them who have not yet joined them.) refers to all non-Arabs who believe in the truth of the Prophet. 

Allah's statement, (وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) asserts that He is Almighty and All-Wise in His legislation and the destiny He appoints. 

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
Others of them: i.e., others than those among whom the holy Prophet came as a messenger. In other words his Message is for his Arab people and his non-Arab contemporaries as well as those who live in other ages, and have no personal contact with him or his Companions.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
" and [to cause this message to spread] from them unto other people as soon as they come into contact with them " I.e., to cause the message of the Qur'an to reach people of other environments and of future times through the medium of the Arabs and their language: thus stressing the universality and timeless validity of all that has been revealed to Muhammad.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation: Ie., among those who for centuries had not received a divine Book nor a prophet. The reference is to the Ishmaelites. It was for this reason that the Jews would call them unlettered. However, the Ishmaelites in spite of realizing that this title reflected religious arrogance of the Jews and was also derogatory in nature did not object to it. They, in fact, accepted this title. When the Qur’an was revealed, it too used this title for them for this reason. 

Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: … When the Qur’an used this word as a distinction for them and for the Messenger God sent forth to them, it was elevated to such a lofty status that it became a symbol of divinely ordained respect for them. As a result, a grand phenomenon was witnessed from providence: they who were derided and disparaged were entrusted with the responsibility of instructing and guiding the whole world, and they who felt pride in being the recipient of a divine book and shari‘ah were compared to a donkey that is laden with books (كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ اَسْفَارًا ). (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 8, 378)

ذٰ لِكَ فَضۡلُ اللّٰهِ يُؤۡتِيۡهِ مَنۡ يَّشَآءُ​ ؕ وَاللّٰهُ ذُو الۡفَضۡلِ الۡعَظِيۡمِ‏ 
( 4 )   That is the bounty of Allah, which He gives to whom He wills, and Allah is the possessor of great bounty.

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir: Allah's statement (That is the grace of Allah, which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of mighty grace.) refers to the great prophethood that He granted Muhammad and the qualities that He favored his Ummah with, by sending Muhammad to them.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
" Such is God's bounty: He grants it to anyone who is willing [to receive it]: " Or: "He grants it unto whomever He wills". Both these formulations are syntactically correct; but since the bounty of God referred to in this passage relates to the divine guidance granted to man through the medium of the revelation bestowed upon God's Apostle, the construction chosen by me seems to be more appropriate, expressing as it does the idea that the bounty of God's guidance is always available to one who sincerely desires it.

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
That is, according to His wise Will and Plan, and also as a result of His unbounded generosity to all.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation: This is a further explanation for the Muslims to express God’s favours and blessings to them: the preaching of the messenger is meant to purify their individual and collective lives. What greater a sincere advice they can be given than this? To convey this meaning, the word used in the Arabic language is: tazkiyah. It means both to purify something and to make it grow and develop. It is attained through the law and wisdom with which the prophets of God instruct their people.

The actual words are: یُعَلِّمُہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ وَالۡحِکۡمَۃَ. Just as the word الۡکِتٰب is used in the language of the Qur’an for a letter and a book, it is also used to denote law. It is evident from parallel verses of the Qur’an that when الۡکِتٰب and الۡحِکۡمَۃ are mentioned together, the former means the shari‘ah and the latter means the essence of religion, faith and morality.

This is said to stir the emotions of gratitude in a person: their attention is directed at the darkness they were engulfed in. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

… The implication of these words is that if they consider this pitch darkness that had engulfed them from all sides, they will have some realization of the favour and blessing of God – how He brought them out from this desolate darkness and bestowed great honour on them.(Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 8, 379)

Prior to this, those people are mentioned who had embraced faith from among the Ishmaelites. It is now said that this favour is also for those among them who have yet to accept faith. Deliberation shows that this is both an invitation and a glad tiding. In other words, they are people who have yet to accept faith but it is likely that they will soon do so. Hence they should come forward and avail themselves of this great opportunity.

Ie., since He is powerful, if He wants He can guide all mankind; however, since He is also wise, He will guide only those who according to His wisdom are worthy of it.

Ie., the favour of prophethood and messenger-hood. It is only He who decides on whom He should bestow this favour; no one else can intervene in this decision.

مَثَلُ الَّذِيۡنَ حُمِّلُوا التَّوۡرٰٮةَ ثُمَّ لَمۡ يَحۡمِلُوۡهَا كَمَثَلِ الۡحِمَارِ يَحۡمِلُ اَسۡفَارًا​ ؕ بِئۡسَ مَثَلُ الۡقَوۡمِ الَّذِيۡنَ كَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰيٰتِ اللّٰهِ ​ؕ وَاللّٰهُ لَا يَهۡدِى الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِيۡنَ‏ 
( 5 )   The example of those who were entrusted with the Torah and then did not take it on is like that of a donkey who carries volumes [of books]. Wretched is the example of the people who deny the signs of Allah. And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.
" The parable of those who were charged with the Torah and then they failed to live up to it" This sentence has two meanings, a general meaning and a special meaning. The general meaning is that the people who were entrusted with the knowledge and practice of the Torah and with the responsibility of guiding the world according to it, neither understood this responsibility nor discharged it as they should have. The special meaning is Being the bearers of the Torah these people should have been fore-most to join hands with the Messenger, good news about whose advent had been already given in the Torah, but, instead, they have been in the forefront to oppose him and have thus failed to fulfill the demand of the teaching of the Torah. 

" is that of a donkey " That is, just as a donkey loaded with books does not know what it is loaded with, so are these people loaded with the Torah and they do not know what this Book was sent for and what are its demands.

" Even more evil is the parable of the people who gave the lie to the Signs of Allah " That is, they are even worst than a donkey, who is without sense and therefore excusable. But these people have intelligence they read and teach the Torah and are fully aware of its meaning Yet they are turning away from its guidance and refusing willfully to acknowledge and believe in the Prophet who even according to the Torah teaches the truth. They are guilty not because of ignorance but because of denying Allah's Revelation deliberately. 

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
The Children of Israel were chosen as special vehicles for Allah's Message early in history. When their descendants corrupted the Message and became guilty of all the abominations against which prophets like Isaiah inveighed with such zeal and fire, they merely became like beasts of burden that carry learning and wisdom on their backs but do not understand or profit by it.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
" THE PARABLE of those who were graced with the burden of the Torah, and thereafter failed to bear this burden, " Connecting with the idea - implied in the preceding passage - that God's revelation is a sacred trust as well as a bounty, the discourse turns now to the problem of man's betrayal of this trust, exemplified by the Jews of post-Biblical times. They had been entrusted by God with the task of carrying the message of His oneness and uniqueness to all the world: but they failed in this task inasmuch as they came to believe that they were "God's chosen people" because of their descent from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and that, therefore, the divine message was meant for them alone and not for people of other nations. Hence, too, they came to deny the possibility of prophethood being bestowed on anyone who did not belong to the children of Israel (cf. 2:90 and {94}, and the corresponding notes), and so they summarily rejected the idea of Muhammad's prophethood despite the clear predictions of his advent in the Torah itself (see note on 2:42 ). By thus corrupting the innermost purport of the divine writ bestowed on Moses, they themselves became unable to derive any real spiritual benefit from it, and to live up to its teachings.

قُلۡ يٰۤاَيُّهَا الَّذِيۡنَ هَادُوۡۤا اِنۡ زَعَمۡتُمۡ اَنَّكُمۡ اَوۡلِيَآءُ لِلّٰهِ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الۡمَوۡتَ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِيۡنَ‏
( 6 )   Say, "O you who are Jews, if you claim that you are allies of Allah, excluding the [other] people, then wish for death, if you should be truthful."
" Tell them: “O you who have become Judaised, " This point is noteworthy. It has not been said: "O Jews". but "O you who have became Jews, or who have adopted Judaism", the reason being that the way of life brought by the Prophet Moses (peace be on him) and the Prophets after and before him, was Islam itself. None of those Prophets was a Jew, nor bad Judaism been born in their time, but Judaism as such came into being much later. It is ascribed to the tribe which descended from Judah, the fourth son of the Prophet Jacob (peace be upon him). When after the Prophet Solomon (peace be upon him) his kingdom broke into two parts, this tribe became ruler over the state which came to be known as Judea. The other tribes of the Israelites established their separate state which became famous as Samaria. Then Assyria not only destroyed Samaria but also wiped out those Israelite tribes which had founded that state. After that only the decedents of Judah besides those of Benjamin remained. Who because of the predominance of the descendants of Judah, began to be called the "Jews". Judaism is the name of the framework of the doctrines, customs, and religious rules and regulations which the priests, rabbis and learned men of this race prepared according to their own ideas, theories and trends for many centuries. This framework started being shaped in the 4th century B.C. and continued to develop till the 5th century A.D. It contains a very small element of the Divine guidance brought by the Messengers of Allah, and even that element has been corrupted That is why at many places in the Qur'an they have been addressed as alladhina hadu "O you who have become Jews". All of these were not the Israelites but there were among them also converts who had embraced Judaism. .Whenever in the Qur'an the children of Israel have been addressed, the words are: "O children of Israel", and where the followers of Judaism have been addressed, the words are; alladhina hadu "O you who have become Jews" . 

" if you arrogantly fancy that you are Allah's favourites " At several places in the Qur'an their claim has been described in detail, as in Al Baqarah: 111: "They say: none shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew', in AI-Baqarah: 80: "The fire of Hell is not going to touch us, and even if it does at all, it will be only for a few days', and in Al-Ma'idah: 18: "We are the sons of Allah and His beloved ones." Sane such claims are also found in the books of the Jews themselves The world at least knows that they regard themselves as the chosen people of God, and cherish the false notion that Cod has a special relationship with them, which is not shared by any other human group or class. 

" to the exclusion of all people, then wish for death, if you are truthful in your claim.” This has been stated for the second time in the Qur'an, addressing the Jews First, in Al-Baqarah: 94-96, it was said:
 "Say to them: If the abode of the Hereafter with Allah is exclusively reserved for you and Trot for the rest of mankind, then you should long for death, if you are sincere in your claim. Believe it that they will never wish for it, for (they arc fully aware of) what they have sent before them for the Hereafter. And Allah knows well the mentality of the transgressors. You will find that of all mankind, they are the greediest for life; any they are even greedier than the idolaters. Each one of them longs to have a life of a thousand years, but a long life can by no means remove them away from the Doom, for Allah is watching whatever they are doing." 
Now the same thing has been repeated here. But this is not a mere repetition. In the verses of Al-Baqarah, it was said when no war had yet take place between the Muslims and the Jews. In this Surah it was reiterated at the time when after several battles their power in Arabia had been finally and absolutely, crushed. These battles and their results proved by experience and observation that what had been said in AI-Baqarah was correct. In Madinah and Khyber the Jewish strength was much superior to that of the Muslims both in numbers and in resources. Then they had the pagans of Arabia and the hypocrites of Madinah also as their allies who were bent upon wiping out the Muslims. But in spite of this great disparity in numbers the Muslims overwhelmed the Jews mainly because they were least afraid of dying for the cause of Allah; they were rather fond of it, and would enter the battlefield fully prepared to embrace death. For they believed that they were fighting in the way of God and had complete faith that the one who fell martyr in His way would be blessed with Paradise. Contrary to this, the Jews were not prepared to fight and lay down their life for any cause, neither the cause of God, nor the cause of their nation nor for their own self, properties and honor. They only loved to live, in whatever way or fashion it be. This had made them cowardly.

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
Of Jewry is a very different thing from following the Law and Will of Allah. An arrogant claim to be a chosen people, to be the exclusive possessors of divine teaching, to be exempt from any punishment for breachcs of the divine law, (cf. ii. 88), is presumptuous blasphemy. It may be Judaism, but it is not in the spirit of Moses.

Cf. ii. 94-96. If they claimed to be special friends of Allah, why do they not eagerly desire death, which would bring them nearer to Allah? But of all people they are the most tenacious of this life and the good things of this life! And they know that their grasping selfish lives have run up a score of sin against them, which will meet its recompense.

Muhammad Asad Explanation: 
" Say: "O you who follow the Jewish faith! " I.e., in its present form, estranged from the original purport of the Torah.

" If you claim that you [alone] are close to God, to the exclusion of all other people, then you should be longing for death - if what you say is true!" " For this and the next verse, cf. {2:94-95}.

وَلَا يَتَمَنَّوۡنَهٗۤ اَبَدًۢا بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ اَيۡدِيۡهِمۡ​ؕ وَاللّٰهُ عَلِيۡمٌۢ بِالظّٰلِمِيۡنَ
( 7 )   But they will not wish for it, ever, because of what their hands have put forth. And Allah is Knowing of the wrongdoers.
In other words, their Right from death is not without a reason. Whatever they may say, their consciences arc fully aware of how they are behaving towards Allah and His Religion and what consequences can he expected of the misdeeds they arc committing in the world. That is why-they were afraid to appear at the Court of God."

قُلۡ اِنَّ الۡمَوۡتَ الَّذِىۡ تَفِرُّوۡنَ مِنۡهُ فَاِنَّهٗ مُلٰقِيۡكُمۡ​ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰى عٰلِمِ الۡغَيۡبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمۡ بِمَا كُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ‏ 
( 8 )   Say, "Indeed, the death from which you flee - indeed, it will meet you. Then you will be returned to the Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, and He will inform you about what you used to do."

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
Before Allah's Judgment-Seat, when Judgment is established, we shall see the full inwardness of all deeds in this world. The veil of illusion and delusion will be torn off. All our secret motives will be laid bare. The results of all our little plots and plans and their reactions on our eternal welfare will be clearly visible to us. All make-believe will disappear.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
"Say: "Behold, the death from which you are fleeing" An allusion to what is said in 2:96 [And thou wilt most certainly find that they cling to life more eagerly than any other people, even more than those who are bent on ascribing divinity to other beings beside God: every one of them would love to live a thousand years, although the grant of long life could not save him from suffering [in the hereafter]: for God sees all that they do.]

Ruku One:  Verses 9-11

يٰۤاَيُّهَا الَّذِيۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا نُوۡدِىَ لِلصَّلٰوةِ مِنۡ يَّوۡمِ الۡجُمُعَةِ فَاسۡعَوۡا اِلٰى ذِكۡرِ اللّٰهِ وَذَرُوا الۡبَيۡعَ​ ؕ ذٰ لِكُمۡ خَيۡرٌ لَّـكُمۡ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ‏ 
( 9 )   O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew.
" Believers, when the call for Prayer is made on Friday, " Three things in this sentence are particularly noteworthy:
(1) That it contains mention of the call to the Prayer;
(2) that the mention is of the call to such a Prayer as has to be performed particularly only on Fridays; and
(3) that these things have not been mentioned so as to suggest that the call is to be made for the Prayer and a particular Prayer is to be performed on Friday, but the style and context clearly show that the call to the Prayer and the particular Prayer were both already being performed and practiced on Friday.
The people, however were being negligent in that on hearing the call to the Prayer they would not hasten to it but would remain occupied in their worldly activities and trade and business transactions. Therefore, Allah sent down this verse to make the people realize and appreciate the importance of the call and the Prayer and to exhort them to hasten to perform it as a duty. If these three things are considered deeply, they prove this truth absolutely that Allah conjoined on the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) certain Commands which were not revealed in the Qur'an, and these Commands too wen as obligatory as those revealed in the (Qur'an itself. The call to the Prayer is the same adhan which is being called the world over five times daily in every mosque. But neither its words have been stated anywhere in the Qur'an nor the method of calling the people to the Prayer has been taught. Its method was prescribed by the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace). The Qur'an has only confirmed it twice, here and in AI-Ma'idah: 58. Like wise, this particular Prayer of Friday, which the Muslims of the whole world are performing today has neither been enjoined in the Qur'an nor its time and method of performance described anywhere. This me hod too was prescribed by' the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), and this verse of the Qur'an was sent down only to stress its importance and obligatory nature. In spite of this express argument anyone who claims that the Shari ah commandments are only those which have been stated in the Qur'an, is not in fact a denier of the Sunnah but of the Qur'an itself.

Before proceeding further, let us understand a few other things also about Jumu-uh (the Friday congregational Prayer):
(1) Jumu'ah is an Islamic term. In the pre-Islamic days of ignorance the Arabs called it the 'Arabah Day. In Islam when it was declared as a congregational day of the Muslims, it was re-named Jumu ah. Although according to the historians, Ka`b bin Luayy, or Qusayy bin Kilab, also had used this name for this day, for he used to hold an assembly of Quraish on this day (Fath-al-Bati), yet by this practice the ancient name did not change, and the common Arabs continued to call it the 'Arabah Day. The real change took place when Islam gave it this new name.
(2) Before Islam, setting aside of a day in the week for worship and regarding it as an emblem of the community was prevalent among the followers of the earlier scriptures. Among the Jews the Sabbath (Saturday) had been fixed for this purpose, because on this day Allah had delivered the children of Israel from the bondage of the Pharaoh. In order to distinguish themselves from the Jews the Christians took Sunday as their distinctive emblem. Although it had neither been enjoined by the Prophet Jesus nor mentioned anywhere in the Gospel, yet the Christians believe that after his death on the Cross the Prophet Jesus had risen from the grave on this day and ascended to heaven. On this very basis the later Christians ordained it as the day of worship, and then in 321 A.D. the Roman Empire instituted it as a holiday by decree. In order to distinguish its community from both these communities, Islam adopted Friday as the day of collective worship as against Saturday and Sunday.
(3) It is known from the tradition reported by Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud and Hadrat Abu Mas'ud Ansari that the Friday congregational Prayer had been enjoined on the Holy Prophet (upon whom be-peace some time) before the Hijrah in Makkah itself. But at that time he could not act on it, for in Makkah it was not possible to perform any worship collectively. Therefore, he sent a written instruction to the people who had emigrated to Madinah before him that they should establish the Friday congregational Prayer there. Thus, Hadrat Mus`ab bin `Umair, the leader of the earliest emigrants, offered the first Friday Prayer at Madinah with 12 followers. (Tabarani, Daraqutni). Hadrat Ka`b bin Malik and Ibn Sirin have reported that even before this the Muslims of Madinah had decided mutually, on their own initiative, that they would hold a collective service on one day in the week. For this purpose they had selected Friday as against the Sabbath of the Jews and Sunday of the Christians, and the first Friday Prayer was led by Hadrat Asad bin Zurarah at the place of Bani Bayadah and 40 Muslims participated in it. (Musnad Ahmad Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, `Abd bin Humaid, 'Abdur Razzaq, Baihaqi). This shows that the Islamic taste and trend at that time was itself demanding that there should be a day on which maximum number of Muslims should gather together and worship collectively. And this also was a demand of the Islam itself that it should be a day other than Saturday and Sunday so that the symbol of the Muslim community should be distinctive from the emblems of the Jewish and the Christian communities. This was a wonderful manifestation of the Islamic trends and tastes of the Holy Prophet's Companions that many a time it so happened that even before a thing was enjoined their taste proclaimed that the spirit of Islam demanded its introduction.
(4) The establishment of the Friday congregational Prayer was one of the earliest things that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) did after his emigration to Madinah. After leaving Makkah he reached Quba' on Monday and stayed there for four days. On the fifth day, which was a Friday, he preceded to Madinah. On the way at the place of Bani Salim bin `Auf tim came for the Friday Prayer and he performed the first Friday congregational Prayer at this very place. (Ibn Hisham).
(5) The time appointed by the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) for this Prayer was after the declining of the sun, the same time which is for the Zuhr Prayer. The written instruction that he had sent to Hadrat Mus'ab bin `Umair before the hijrah was: "Seek nearness to Allah by means of two rakahs of the Prayer when the sun declines after midday on Friday. " (Daraqutni). This same instruction he gave orally after hijrah as well as practically led the Friday Prayer at the same time. Traditions on this Subject have been related on the authority of Hadrat Anas, Hadrat Salamah bin Akwa', Hadrat Zubair bin al-`Awwam, Hadrat Sahl bin Sa'd, Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Hadrat `Ammar bin Yasr and Hadrat Bilal in the collection of Hadith, saying that the Holy Prophet used to perform the Friday Prayer after the declining of the sun: (Musnad Ahmad Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Tirmidhi).
(6) This also is confirmed by his practice that on this day the Holy Prophet led the Friday congregational Prayer instead of the Zuhr Prayer, and this Prayer consisted of two rak ahs and he gave the Sermon before it. This was the only difference between the Friday Prayer and the Zuhr Prayer on other days. Hadrat `Umar says: "According to the command enjoined by the tongue of your Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) the traveler's Prayer consists of two rak ahs, the Fajr Prayer consists of two rakahs, and the Friday Prayer consists of two rak ahs. This is the complete, not the shortened, Prayer, and the Friday Prayer has been shortened only because of the Sermon."
(7) The call to the Prayer that has been mentioned here, implies the call that is made just before the Sermon. and not the call that is made much before the Sermon to announce that the prayer time has begun. There is a tradition in the Hadith from Hadrat Sa'ib bin Yazid to the effect that in the time of the Holy Prophet there used to be only one call that was made after the Imam (leader in Prayer) had taken his seat on the pulpit. The same practice also continued in the time of Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat 'Umar. When population increased in the time of Hadrat 'Uthman, he ordered another call to be made in the bazaar of Madinah at his house, Az-Zaura'. (Bukhari, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Tabarani). 
" hasten to the remembrance of Allah and give up all trading. " In this Command "remembrance" implies the Friday Sermon, for the first thing that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) used to do after the call was to deliver the Sermon, and the Prayer he led always after delivering the sermon Hadrat Abu Hurairah has reported that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said: "The angels on Friday go on writing down the names of the people as they arrive. Then, when the Imam comes out to deliver the Sermon, they stop writing the names and turn their attention to the remembrance (i.e. the Sermon)," (Musnad Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i). This Hadith also shows that the remembrance implies the Sermon. The exhortation of the Qur'an itself points to the same thing. First, it says: "Hasten to the remembrance of Allah"; then a little below it says: "Then, when the Prayer is over, disperse in the land. " This shows that on Friday the order of the service is that first there is the remembrance of Allah and then the Prayer. The commentators are also agreed that remembrance either implies the Sermon, or the Sermon and the Prayer both.

Using the word "dhikr-Allah " for the Sermon by itself gives the meaning chat it should contain themes relevant to the remembrance of Allah; for instance, praising and glorifying .Allah, imploring Him to bless His Messenger, exhorting and instructing the audience to obey His Commands and follow His Shari Ah, commending His pious and righteous servants, etc. On this very basis, Zamakhshari writes in al-kashshaf 'Praising the wicked and tyrannical rules in the Friday Sermon, or mentioning their names and praying for them, has nothing to do with the remembrance of Allah; this would be the remembrance of Satan.

Hasten to the remembrance of Allah" does not mean that one should come to the mosque running, but it means that one should make haste for it. The commentators are also agreed on this very meaning. "Hastening" according to them means that on hearing the call one should immediately start making. preparations to attend the mosque. The Hadith even forbids coming to the mosque for the Prayer muting. Hadrat Abu Hurairah has reported that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) said: "When the Prayer has begun, one should conic walking to it with calm and dignity, and not running. Then, one should join in whatever remains of the Prayer, and should make up whatever one has missed independently later. " (Sihah; Sittah Hadrat Abu Qatadah Ansari says: "Once we were offering the Prayer under the leadership of the Holy Prophet when suddenly we heard some people coming to join the Prayer running. When the Prayer was concluded, the Holy Prophet asked: What was the noise about? They replied; We came running for the Prayer. The Holy Prophet said; Don't do that: whenever you come for the Prayer, come with calm and dignity. Join behind the Imam in whatever remains of the Prayer, and make up whatever you have missed independently." (Bukhari, Muslim) 'Leave off your trading" also includes every other worldly activity and business which prevent one from getting ready for the Prayer with full attention and care. "Buying and selling" has been particularly forbidden, for commerce flourished on Fridays. People from the surrounding areas gathered together at a central place, the merchants also arrived with their merchandise, and the people became occupied in buying the necessities of daily use The prohibition however is not restricted only to buying and selling, but it applies to all other occupations as well. And since Allah has forbidden these, jurists of Islam are agreed that after the call has been sounded for the Friday Prayer all forms of trade, business and worldly occupation become forbidden.

This Command absolutely confirms the obligatory nature of the Friday Prayer. In the first place, the exhortation to hasten for it after one has heard the call, is by itself a proof of its being obligatory. Then, the prohibition of a lawful thing like trade and business at the time of the Prayer also shows that it is obligatory in nature Moreover, the elimination of the obligatory Zuhr Prayer on Friday and its being replaced by the Friday Prayer, is a clear proof that it is obligatory in nature. For an obligatory duty becomes eliminated only when the duty replacing it is more important. This very thing has been supported in many Hadiths, in which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) exhorted the Muslims in most emphatic words to attend the Friday Prayer and has declared it in clear words to be obligatory. Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud has reported that the Holy Prophet said: 'I feel I should ask somebody to stand in my place to Iced the Prayer, and I myself should go and set fire to the houses of the people who do not come for the Prayer. " (Musnad Ahmad, Bukhari). Hadrat Abu Hurairah, Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas and Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Umar say: "We heard the Holy Prophet say this ' in the Friday Sermon, The people should refrain from giving up the Friday Prayer; otherwise Allah will seal up hearts and they will become totally heedless." (Musnad Ahmad, Muslim, Nasa'i). From the traditions reported by Hadrat Abu al-Ja'd Damri, Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah and Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Abi Aufa from the Holy Prophet one comes to know that Allah seals ½p the heart of the person who abandons three Friday Prayers, one after the other, without a genuine reason and lawful excuse. Rather in one tradition the words arc to the effect: "Allah turns the heart of such a one into the heart of a hypocrite." (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, Nasa`i, Tirmidhi Ibn Majah Darimi, Hakim, Ibn Hibban, Bazzar, Tabarani in al-Kabir. Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah says that the Holy Prophet said: "From today till Resurrection the Friday Prayer is obligatory on you. Allah will neither bless nor set right the condition of the one who abandons it disregarding it or considering it an ordinary thing. Note it well: the Prayer of such a one will be no, prayer at all, his zakat will be no zakat at all, his Hajj no Hajj, his fasting no fasting, and no good done by him will be good, until he repents. Then, for the one who repents, Allah is Most Forgiving." (Ibn Majah, Bazzar). Another tradition, which is very close in meaning to this, has been cited by Tabarani in Auset from Ibn 'Umar, Furthemore there arc many traditions in which the Holy Prophet has declared the Friday Prayer as obligatory in clear words. Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-'As has related that the Holy Prophet said: 'The Friday Prayer is obligatory on every person who hears the call to it." (Abu Da'ud Daraqutni). Jabir bin 'Abdullah and Abu Sa'id Khudri say that he said in a Sermon: "Know that Allah has enjoined the Friday Prayer as a duty on you (Baihaqi). However, He has exempted the women, children, slaves, the sick and the travellers from this duty. Hadrat Hafsah has reported that the Holy Prophet said: "Attendance at the Friday Prayer is obligatory on every adult male." (Nasa'i). Hadrat Tariq bin Shihab's tradition contains this saying of the Holy Prophet: "The Friday congregational Prayer is obligatory on every Muslim except the slave, women, children and the sick." (Abu Da'ud, Hakim). In the tradition of Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah, his words are to the effect: "Friday Prayer is obligatory on the person who believes in Allah and the Last Day unless it is a woman, or a traveler, or a slave, or a sick man." (Daraqutni, Baihaqi). On account of these very exhortations of the Qur'an and the Hadith. the entire Ummah is agreed that the Friday congregational Prayer is of obligatory nature. 

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
Friday is called Al-Jumu`ah because it is derived from Al-Jam`, literally, gathering. The people of Islam gather weekly, on every Friday in the major places of worship. It was during Friday when Allah finished the creation, the sixth day, during which Allah created the heavens and earth. During Friday, Allah created Adam, and he was placed in Paradise, and ironically, it was a Friday when he was taken out of Paradise. It will be on a Friday when the Last Hour will commence. There is an hour during Friday, wherein no faithful servant asks Allah for something good, but Allah will give him what he asked for. All of this is based upon Hadiths in the authenic collections. In the ancient language Friday was called, `Arubah. It is a fact that previous nations were informed about Friday, but they were led astray from it. The Jews chose Saturday for their holy day, but Adam was not created on Saturday. The Christians chose Sunday, which is the day the creation was initiated. Allah chose Friday for this Ummah, because it is the day the creation was finished.
The Meaning of the Call in the Ayah is the Adhan that precedes the Khutbah: Allah said, (When the call is proclaimed for the Salah on Friday,) referring to the Adhan which was called, during the time of the Prophet , when he came out of his house and sat on the Minbar. The Adhan would be called before the Prophet near the door of the Masjid. As for the earlier Adhan that the Leader of the faithful, `Uthman bin Affan added, it was done because the Muslims increased in number during his time. Al-Bukhari recorded that As-Sa'ib bin Yazid said, "In the lifetime of the Prophet , Abu Bakr and `Umar, the Adhan for the Friday prayer was pronounced while the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during `Uthman's later time when the Muslims increased in number, an additional call was pronounced upon Az-Zawra', meaning the Adhan was called upon the house which was called Az-Zawra''' Az-Zawra' was the tallest house in Al-Madinah near the Masjid.

Prohibiting buying and selling after the Call on Friday, and the Exhortation to seek Provisions after it. Allah said, (and leave off business.) means, hastening to the remembrance of Allah and abandoning business, when the call to the Friday prayer is made. Therefore, the scholars of Islam agree, it is prohibited for Muslims to engage in business transactions after the second Adhan. Allah's statement, (That is better for you if you did but know!) means, `your abandoning buying and selling, and instead, concentrating your attention to Allah's remembrance and the prayer are better for you in this life and the Hereafter, if you but knew.' 

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
Friday, is primarily the Day of Assembly, the weekly meeting of the Congregation, when we show our unity by sharing in common public worship, preceded by a Khutba, in which the Imam (or Leader) reviews the week's fife of the Community and offers advice and exhortation on good living. Notice the gradations of social contact for Muslims if they followed the wise ordinances of their Faith. (1) Each individual remembers Allah for himself or herself five or more times every day in the home or place of business, or local mosque, or open air, as the case may be. (2) On Friday in every week there is a local meeting in the central mosque of each local centre,-it may be a village, or town, or ward of a big city. (3) At the two 'Ids every year, there is a large local area meeting in one centre. (4) Once at least in a lifetime, where possible, a Muslim shares in the vast international assemblage of the world, in the centre of Islam, at the Makkan Pilgrimage. A happy combination of decentralisation and centralisation, of individual liberty and collective meeting, and contact at various stages or grades. The mechanical part of this ordinance is easy to carry out. Are we carrying out the more difficult part?-the spirit of unity, brotherhood, mutual consultation, and collective understanding and action?

The idea behind the Muslim weekly "Day of Assembly" is different from that behind the Jewish Sabbath (Saturday) or the Christian Sunday. The Jewish Sabbath is primarily a commemoration of Allah's ending His work and resting on the seventh day (Gen. ii. 2; Exod. xx. 11): we are taught that Allah needs no rest, nor does He feel fatigue (ii. 255). The Jewish command forbids work on that day but says nothing about worship or prayer (Exod. xx. 10); our ordinance lays chief stress on the remembrance of Allah. Jewish formalism went so far as to kill the spirit of the sabbath, and call forth the protest of Jesus: "the sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath" (Mark. ii. 27). But the Christian Church, although it has changed the day from Saturday to Sunday, has inherited the Jewish spirit: witness the Scottish Sabbath; except in so far as it has been secularised. Our teaching says: 'When the time for Jumua Prayer comes, close your business and answer the summons loyally and earnestly, meet earnestly, pray, consult and learn by social contact; when the meeting is over, scatter and go about your business'.

The immediate and temporal worldly gain may be the ultimate and spiritual loss, and vice versa.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
I.e., on Friday, when the congregational prayer at noon is obligatory. Nevertheless, as the sequence shows, Friday is not a day of compulsory rest in Islamic Law.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation: Though this address is general, it is directed towards the weak Muslims whose blemishes are mentioned earlier. 

Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
… The benefit of a general address is that the people who are actually addressed do not feel humiliated; in fact, if they are upright, they regard this overlooking of the speaker as his graciousness, and benefit from this advice. If people are pin-pointedly rebuked, there is a chance that feelings of stubbornness and overblown self-esteem arise in them. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 8, 385)
There is just one single call for the Friday prayer which is given before the sermon. The verse mentions this very call. It is evident from various narratives that the addition of the second call to prayer was introduced in the times of ‘Uthman (rta) so that the call could be recognized from a distance. The reason was that at that time the population of Madinah had considerably increased. (al-Bukhari, no. 873). The purpose of this call is to invite people to the prayer. Hence, if there is a need, this call can also be sounded more than once.

The word dhikrullah (remembrance of God) refers both to the sermon and the prayer. God is remembered in the prayer and the imam reminds people of God in the sermon. The established religious practice about the Friday prayer is that both its sermon and leading the prayer is is entrusted to rulers of the state. Moreover, it is only held at places which are prescribed by them where they themselves or any of their representatives is present to lead the prayers. It is through the Friday sermon through which rulers have been prescribed to fulfill their responsibility of calling people towards religion.

The actual word is: الۡبَیۡع. Its real meaning is “to sell;” however, in general usage, it connotes both buying and selling. The purpose for using it is that Muslims must forsake every activity and come to listen to the sermon of the Prophet (sws) and to pray behind him. Trading is merely mentioned because at that time it became the source of trial.

فَاِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلٰوةُ فَانْتَشِرُوۡا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ وَابۡتَغُوۡا مِنۡ فَضۡلِ اللّٰهِ وَاذۡكُرُوا اللّٰهَ كَثِيۡرًا لَّعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ‏
( 10 )   And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allah, and remember Allah often that you may succeed.
"But when the Prayer is ended, disperse in the land and seek Allah's Bounty,"  This does not mean that after the Friday is over, it is obligatory to go in search of livelihood. but it only implies permission. As it was ordered to stop all worldly business as soon as the call was made for the Prayer, so it is allowed that after the Prayer is over, the people may dispose and resume or pursue whatever occupation or business they may like. It is just like the prohibition of hunting in the state of ihram, but after ihram is put off, one is told to hunt. (AI-Ma'idah: 2). That does not mean that one must hunt, but that one may hunt if one so likes. Or, for instance. in Surah An-Nisa', permission to marry more than one wife has been given, saying: "Marry two or three or four women whom you 'choose. " Here, although the verb is in the imperative mood, no one has taken it in the meaning of a command This gives the principle that the imperative form of the verb does not always imply an obligation or command it sometimes implies the permission and sometimes exercise of choice or preference. The context determines where it implies the command, where the permission and where Allah's approval of the act, and not that the act is obligatory. Immediately after this very sentence itself, it has been said: "And remember Allah much. " Here also the verb is in the imperative mood, but obviously it implies exercise of one's choice and not that it is a duty or compulsion.

Here, another thing worthy of mention is that although in the Qur'an Friday has not been declared a public holiday like the Jewish Sabbath and the Christian Sunday, yet no one can deny that Friday is a symbol of the Muslim community precisely in the same way as Saturday is a Jewish and Sunday a Christian symbol. And if declaring a day in the week a public holiday be a cultural necessity, then just as the Jews naturally select Saturday for it and the Christians Sunday, so a Muslim (if he has any Islamic feeling) will necessarily select only Friday for this purpose. The Christians did not even hesitate to impose their Sunday on some other countries where Christian population was negligible. When the Jews established their state in Palestine, the first thing they did was to announce Saturday as the weekly holiday instead of Sunday. In prepartitioned India one conspicuous distinction between British India and the Muslim states was that in one part of the country Sunday was observed as a closed holiday and in the other Friday. However, where the Muslims lack Islamic values, they hold to Sunday even after attaining to sovereign power as we see in Pakistan. In case of excessive westernization Friday is replaced by Sunday as the weekly holiday as was done by Mustafa Kamal in Turkey.

" and remember Allah much " "Remember Allah much": "Do not forget Allah even when you are otherwise occupied; but remember Him under all circumstances and remain conscious of Him at ail times." (For explanation, see E.N. 63 of Surah Al-Ahzab) 

" so that you may prosper " At several places in the Qur'an, after giving an-instruction or an admonition, or a command words to the effect: perhaps, you achieve success" or 'perhaps you may be shown mercy" have been used. The use of 'perhaps" on such occasions does not mean that Allah, God forbid, is entertaining a doubt, but it is in fact a royal style of address. It is just like a kindly master's giving out hope to his servants to continue doing their best so that they may achieve and win the desired goal and reward, It contains a subtle promise which fills the servant with hope and he carries out his duties and obligations with enthusiasm.

As the Commands pertaining to the Friday congregational prayer come to an end here, it would be useful to give a resume of the injunctions that the four schools of juristic thought have derived from the Qur'an, the Hadih, traditions of the Companions of the Holy Prophet and the general principles of Islam.

According to the Hanafi school of thought, the time for the Friday Prayer is the same as for Zuhr Prayer. The Friday Prayer can neither be held before it nor after it. Business and trade become forbidden with the first call to the Prayer and not with the second call which is made after the Imam has taken his place on the pulpit, for the words of the Qur'an in this regard are explicit and definite. Therefore, whichever call is made for the Friday Prayer after the declining of the sun when the Prayer time begins, the people should stop conducting business on hearing it. However, if a person has made a bargain at that time, it will not be void, but will only be a sin. The Friday Prayer cannot be held in every settlement but only in the misr Jami which has been defined as a large town or city, where there arc market places, adequate security arrangements, and which has large enough population so that if all the people upon whom attendance at the Friday Prayer is obligatory, gather together, they should be too many for the principal mosque to hold. The people who live outside the city will have to offer the Prayer in the city only in case the call to the Prayer reaches them, or if they live within six miles of the city. The Prayer may not necessarily be held in the mosque; it may also be held in the open field and also on a ground which is outside the city but a part of it. The Friday Prayer can be validly held only in a place where any and every person may come to attend it without any hindrance. It will not be valid if it is held in a restricted place where every person is not allowed to join in no matter how many people may gather together. For the Prayer to be valid there should at least be three men (according to Imam Abu Hanifah beside the Imam, or two men including the Imam (according to Imams Abu Yusuf and Mohammad), upon whom it is obligatory to attend the Friday Prayer. A person will be exempt from the Prayer if he is on a journey, or is so ill that he cannot walk to attend it, or is disabled of both the legs, or is blind (but according to Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, a blind person will be exempt from the Prayer duty only in case he does not find a man who can take him along for the Prayer), or he apprehends a danger to he life and honor, or an unbearable financial loss from a tyrant, or It is raining heavily and there is slush and rainwater on the way, or he is a. prisoner, For the prisoner and the disabled, it is undesirable that they should perform the Zuhr Prayer on Friday In congregation. For those also who have missed the Friday Prayer it is undesirable to perform the Zuhr Prayer collectively, The sermon is one of the pre-requisites of the Friday Prayer to be valid, for the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) never performed the Friday Prayer without the Sermon; the Sermon must necessarily precede the prayer, and there should be two Sermons. From the time the Imam steps towards the pulpit for the sermon, every kind of speech becomes forbidden till he brings it to an end; no prayer may be performed during it, whether one can hear the Imam at the place where one is sitting or not. (Hedayah, Al-Fath ul-Qadir; al-Jassas: Ahkam al-Qur'an; AI-Fiqh alai-Madhahib al-Arb'ah; 'Umdat al-Qari).

According to the Shafe'is the time of the Friday Prayer is the same as of the Zuhr Prayer. Trade and business become forbidden and hastening to the remembrance of Allah becomes obligatory from the time the second call is sounded, i.e. the call which is sounded after the Imam has taken his place on the pulpit. However, if A person carries out a transaction at this time, it does not become void. The Friday Prayer can be held in every such settlement among the permanent residents of which there are 40 such men upon whom it is incumbent to perform the Prayer. Attendance at the Friday Prayer is obligatory for, those people of the suburbs whom the call may reach The Friday service must be held within the bounds of the settlement, but it may not necessarily be held in the mosque. Thus, it is not obligatory for nomadic peoples who live in tents, in the desert. For the Prayer to be valid there should at least be 40 such men including the Imam in the congregation upon whom the Prayer is incumbent. A person would be exempt from the Prayer if he is on a journey, or intends to stay at a place for four or less than four days provided that the journey is lawful, or he is old or sick and cannot go to attend the Prayer even by a conveyance, or is blind and does not find a man . who can take him along for the Prayer, or apprehends danger to lift or property or honor, or is a prisoner provided that this imprisonment has not been caused by his own crime. There should be two sermons before the Prayer. Although it is according to the Sunnah to sit quiet during the sermon, yet speech is not forbidden. For the person who is sitting close to the Imam so that he can hear the sermon, speech is disapproved, but he can respond to a greeting, and can recite prayer on the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) aloud when he hears his name being mentioned. (Mughni al-Muhtaj Al-Fiqh alal-Madhahib al-Arb'ah).

According to the Malikis, the Friday Prayer time begins from the declining of the sun and lasts till such time in the evening that the Sermon and the Prayer can be concluded before sunset. Business transactions become forbidden and hastening becomes obligatory with the second call. If a transaction takes place after it, it would be void and sinful. The Friday Prayer can be held in the settlements, residents of which live in permanent houses and do not migrate in the summer or the winter, and whose needs and requirements are met in the same settlements, and who can defend themselves on the basis of their strength. In temporary dwelling places the Friday 'Prayer cannot be established even though many people may be staying there and staying for long periods. Attendance at the Prayer is obligatory for the people who live within- three miles of the settlement where the Prayer is held. The Prayer can be held only in the mosque, which is inside the settlement or adjoining it, and the building of which is not inferior to the houses of the common residents of the place. Some Malikis have also imposed the condition that the mosque should be roofed, and arrangements for offering collective Prayer five times daily should also exist in it However, the better known view of the Malikis is that for the Prayer to be valid the mosque's being roofed is no pre-requisite. The Friday Prayer can also be held in a mosque which has been built only for the Friday Prayer and no arrangements exist in it for the five daily Prayers. For the Prayer to be valid there must at least be 12 other men, apart from the Imam, in the congregation upon whom the Friday Prayer is incumbent. A person would be exempt from it if he is on a journey, or intends to stay for Less than four days at a place during the journey, or is so ill that he cannot come to the mosque, or has an ailing mother or father, or wife, or child, or he is nursing a stranger who has nobody else to nurse him, or has a close relative who is seriously ill, or at the point of death, or apprehends an unbearable loss to property, or a danger to his life or honor, or is hiding from fear of imprisonment, or punishment, provided that he is a wronged and oppressed person, or it is raining heavily and there is slush and rainwater on the way, or the weather is oppressive due to excessive heat or cold. The Prayer has to be preceded by two Sermons; so much so that if the Sermon is given after the Prayer, the Prayer has to be repeated, and the Sermons must necessarily be delivered inside the mosque. It is forbidden to offer a voluntary Prayer after the Imam has stepped towards the pulpit, land to talk when the Sermon has begun, even if one is not hearing it, However, if the Imam indulges in meaningless and absurd things in the Sermon, or uses abusive language for a person who does not deserve it, or starts praising a, person for whom praise is unlawful, or starts reciting something irrelevant to the Sermon, the people have the right to protest. Furthermore, it is reprehensible that a prayer be made in the Sermon for the temporal ruler, unless the Imam apprehends danger to his life. The Imam must necessarily be the same person who leads the Prayer; if another person than the one who gave the Sermon led the Prayer it would be void. (Hashiyah ad-Dusuqi ila-sh-Sharh al-Kabir,' Ibn 'Arabi, .4hkam al-Qur an; Al-Fiqh alal-Madhahib al-'Arb ah).

According to the Hanbalis, the Friday Prayer time begins when the sun has risen about a spear's length high and lasts till the beginning of the 'Asr Prayer time in the afternoon, but performing the Prayer before the declining of the sun is just permissible but after it obligatory and meritorious. Business transactions become forbidden and hastening to the Prayer becomes obligatory with the second call, A transaction contracted after it has no effect in the law. The Prayer can be held only at a place where 40 men on whom the Friday Prayer is incumbent have permanently settled in houses (and not in tents) and are not nomadic tribesmen. For this purpose, it will not make any difference if the houses of the settlement or its different parts are scattered or compact; if their combination is called by one name, it will be one settlement even if its different parts are miles apart. Attendance at the Prayer will be obligatory for the people who live within three miles of the settlement. The congregation should consist of 40 men including the Imam. The Prayer may not necessarily be performed in the mosque; it may be performed in the open as well. A person will be exempt from it if he is on a journey and intend to stay in the settlement for four or less than four days, or is so ill that he cannot come to the mosque even by a conveyance, or is blind unless he can grope his way to the mosque; (it is not obligatory for the blind man to come for the Prayer with another man's help), or he is prevented by extreme weather or heavy rain or slush and rainwater, or he is hiding to escape persecution or apprehends danger to life or honor, or fears an unbearable financial loss, The Prayer should be preceded by two Sermons. The person who is sitting so close to the Imam that he can hear him, is forbidden speech; however, the one sitting far away, who cannot hear the Sermon, can speak. The people have to sit quiet during the Sermon whether the person delivering the Sermon is a just man or an unjust man. If Eid falls on a Friday, the people who have performed the Eid Prayer will be exempt from the Friday Prayer. In this matter, the viewpoint of the Hanbalis is different from that of the other three Imams. (Ghayat al-Muntaha; AI-Fiqh alal-Madhahib al-Arb ah),

All jurists are agreed that if the person upon whom the Friday Prayer is not incumbent, joins in the Prayer, his Prayer would be valid, and he would be absolved from the Zuhr Prayer. 

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir: 
(Then when the Salah is complete,) means, when the Friday prayer is finished,

(you may disperse through the land, and seek the bounty of Allah,) After Allah forbade Muslims from working after hearing the Adhan and ordered them to gather for the Friday prayer, He allowed them to spread throughout the earth and seek bounty after the prayer is finished. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that when the Friday prayer finished, `Irak bin Malik would stand by the gate of the Masjid and invoke Allah, saying, "O Allah! I have accepted and complied with Your Call, performed the prayer You ordered and dispersed as You ordered me. Therefore, grant me of Your favor and You are the best of those who grant provisions.'' 

Allah's statement, (and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.) means, while you are buying and selling, giving and taking, remember Allah much and do not let this life busy you from what benefits you in the Hereafter. 

There is a Hadith that states, (Whoever enters a marketplace and says, "La ilaha illallah, He is alone without partners, His is the sovereignty and His is the praise, and He is Able to do all things.'' Then Allah will record a thousand-thousand (a million) good deeds for him and will erase a thousand-thousand evil deeds.) Mujahid said, "A servant (of Allah) will not be among those who remember Allah often, until he does so while standing, sitting and lying down.''

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
Prosperity is not to be measured by wealth or worldly gains. There is a higher prosperity,-the health of the mind and the spirit.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation: Ie., the restriction only relates to the sermon and the prayer. Once they are completed, Muslims can go to any place in any manner to strive for their livelihood.

The implication is that it is not merely in the prayer in which God should be remembered. Muslims should keep Him in remembrance in their hearts and minds while standing, sitting and in all other situations. This is the path to success.

وَاِذَا رَاَوۡا تِجَارَةً اَوۡ لَهۡوَا۟ اۨنْفَضُّوۡۤا اِلَيۡهَا وَتَرَكُوۡكَ قَآئِمًا​ ؕ قُلۡ مَا عِنۡدَ اللّٰهِ خَيۡرٌ مِّنَ اللَّهۡوِ وَمِنَ التِّجَارَةِ​ ؕ وَاللّٰهُ خَيۡرُ الرّٰزِقِيۡنَ
( 11 )   But when they saw a transaction or a diversion, [O Muhammad], they rushed to it and left you standing. Say, "What is with Allah is better than diversion and than a transaction, and Allah is the best of providers."
"  Yet no sooner than they saw some trading or amusement, they flocked to it and left you standing by yourself. " This is the incident because of which the commandments pertaining to the Friday congregational Prayer have been enjoined in the preceding verses. Its narrative as related in the collections of Hadith, on the authority of Jabir bin Abdullah, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Malik, and Hasan Basri, lbn Zaid, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan is as follows: A trade caravan from Syria arrived in Al-Madinah right at the time of the Friday Prayer and its people started playing their drums to announce their arrival. The Prophet (peace be upon him) at that time was delivering the sermon, Hearing the drum the people in the congregation became impatient and rushed out towards Baqi where the caravan had halted, except for 12 men. The most authentic tradition in this narrative is of Jabir bin Abdullah, which has been related by Imam Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Uwanah, Abd bin Humaid, Abu Yala and others through reliable channels. The only diversity is that in some traditions it is stated that the incident took place when the Prayer was in progress; in others that it happened when the Prophet was delivering the sermon. However, what appears to be correct when the tradition of Jabir and those of others are read together is that it happened during the sermon. Where Jabir says that it happened during the Friday Prayer, he in fact has used the word Friday Prayer for the combination of the sermon and the Prayer. According to the tradition of Abdullah bin Abbas, seven women had remained behind with 12 men. (Ibn Marduyah). Qatadah says that one woman remained with 12 men, (lbn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim). According to the tradition of Daraqutni 40 individuals remained, of Abd bin Humaid 7 individuals and of Farra 8 individuals. But all these are weak traditions. The tradition of Qatadah that such a thing happened thrice is also weak. (Ibn Jarir). The authentic tradition in this regard is of Jabir, according to which the number of those who remained behind is stated to be 12. Apart from one tradition of Qatadah, all traditions of the other companions and their followers agree that this happened only once. When read together different traditions about those who remained behind show that they included Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, AIi, Abdullah bin Masud, Ammar bin Yasir, Salim (slave of Hudhaifah) and Jabir bin Abdullah. The tradition related by Hafiz Abu Yala from Jabir bin Abdullah says that when the people rushed out like that and only 12 companions were left behind, the Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed them, saying: By Him in Whose hand is my life, if all of you had left, and none had remained behind, this valley would have overflowed with fire. A theme resembling this has been cited by Ibn Marduyah from Abdullah bin Abbas and by Ibn Jarir from Qatadah.
The Shiite scholars have used this incident also for taunting and finding fault with the companions. They say that abandoning the sermon and the Prayer by such a large number of the companions for the sake of worldly gain and amusement is a proof that they preferred the world to the Hereafter. But this is a misplaced objection that can be raised only if one keeps his eyes closed to realities. As a matter of fact, this incident took place just after the migration. At that time, on the one hand, the collective training of the companions was in the initial stages, and on the other, the disbelievers of Makkah had subjected the people of Al-Madinah to a strict economic blockade because of which necessities of life had become scarce in the city. Hasan Basri says that the people at time were starving and the prices had risen abnormally high. (Ibn Jarir). Under such conditions when a trade caravan arrived, the people rushed out to buy things of daily need lest these were sold out before the Prayer was concluded. This was a weakness and error which became suddenly manifest due to insufficient training and severity of the conditions. But whoever sees the sacrifices made by the companions for the cause of Islam afterwards and sees what piety and righteousness they displayed in the matter of worship and dedication and dealings can never dare bring against them the allegation that they preferred the world to the Hereafter unless he himself bears malice against the companions.
However, just as this incident does not support the critics of the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him), so it also does not support the ideas of those people who cherish exaggerated notions about them and claim that they never committed any error, or if they committed some, it should not be mentioned, for making mention of their error and calling it an error is derogatory and it reduces one’s reverence and respect for them, and its mention goes against the verses of the Quran and the Hadith, which state that the companions are Allah’s favorite people and have already been forgiven all their errors and mistakes. All this is exaggeration for which there is no basis in the Quran and the Hadith. Here, everyone can see for himself that Allah Himself has mentioned the error that happened to have been committed by a large number of the companions, in the Book that will be read by the entire ummah till Resurrection, and in the same Book which speaks of their having been forgiven and being chosen people of Allah. Then in the books of the Hadith and commentary also details of this error have been described by all scholars, from the companions to the major scholars among the followers of the Sunnah. Does it mean that Allah has made this mention in order to destroy the reverence for the same companions whose reverence and esteem He wants to instill in all our hearts? And does it mean that the companions and their followers and the traditionists and commentators have mentioned these details of this incident because they were unaware of the religious aspect of the matter which these zealots show and describe? And have the people who read Surah Al-Jumuah and study its commentary really lost reverence and esteem for the companions from their hearts? If the answer to each of these questions is in the negative, and it is surely in the negative, then all those exaggerated ideas and notions, which some people express and show in regard to the reverence of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) companions, are erroneous.
The truth is that the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) were not supernormal beings: they were only human born in this very world. Whatever they attained, they attained through the persistent training imparted by the Prophet (peace be upon him) over many years. The method of this training as we learn from the Quran and the Hadith was; Whenever a weakness appeared in them, Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) turned immediate attention to it, and a program of education and training was established to overcome and eradicate it. In the matter of this very Friday Prayer, we see that when the incident of the trade caravan occurred, Allah sent down this section of the verses of Surah Al-Jumuah to administer warning and teach the etiquette of the Friday Service. Along with this the Prophet (peace be upon him) impressed on the people the importance of the obligatory nature of the service continuously in his sermons as explained in( E.N. 15) above. All these instructions are found in the Hadith in clear words. Abu Saeed Khudri says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Every Muslim must have full bath on Friday, should clean his teeth, put on the best available clothes, and use perfume if possible. (Musnad Ahmad Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Nasai). Salman Farsi says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The Muslim who has bath on Friday, cleans and purifies himself as far as possible, applies oil to his hair, or uses perfume if available, and comes to the mosque and takes his place without disturbing others, then offers the (voluntary) Prayer that Allah has destined for him, then listens quietly when the imam speaks, he will have his sins and errors committed since the previous Friday forgiven. (Bukhari, Musnad Ahmad). Traditions containing almost the same theme have been reported by Abu Ayub Anati, Abu Hurairah and Nubaishat alHudhali also from the Prophet (peace be upon him). (Musnad Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Tabarani). Abdullah bin Abbas says that the Prophet said: The person who speaks when the imam is delivering the sermon is like the donkey loaded with books, and the person who tells him to keep quiet has also rendered his own Prayer void. (Musnad Ahmad). Abu Huraira says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If on Friday during the sermon you said to a person, keep quiet, you too behaved wrong. (Bukhari, Muslim, Nasai, Tirmidhi, Abu Daud). Traditions closely resembling this have been related by Imam Ahmad, Abu Daud and Tabarani from Ali and Abu ad-Darda. To the person delivering the sermon also the Prophet (peace be upon him) instructed that he should not deliver a lengthy sermon to try the people’s patience. His own practice on Friday was that he gave brief sermons and led short Prayers. Jabir bin Samurah says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) would never give a lengthy sermon, he was always very brief. (Abu Daud). Abdullah bin Abi Aufa says: The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) sermon used to be shorter than the Prayer, and the Prayer a little longer than the sermon. (Nasai). According to Ammar bin Yasir, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The prolongation of the Prayer and the brevity of the sermon are a sign that the Imam has deep insight in religion. (Musnad Ahmad, Muslim). Almost the same theme Bazzar has related from Abdullah bin Masud. All this shows how the Prophet (peace be upon him) taught the people the etiquette of the Friday congregational service till it began to be performed in the unique manner unknown in the congregational worship of any other people in the world.

" Tell them: “That which is with Allah is far better than amusement and trading. " This sentence by itself shows what was the nature of the error committed by the companions. God forbid, if it had been due to any weakness of the faith, or due to giving the world preference over the Hereafter, Allah’s wrath and displeasure and reprimand would have been much severer. But since there was no such weakness, and whatever happened was only due to insufficient training, Allah first taught the people the etiquette of the Friday service, then, after pointing out the error, promised them that the reward they would get with Allah for listening to the sermon and performing the Prayer would be much greater than worldly gains and amusements.

" Allah is the Best Provider of sustenance. " That is, Allah is by far the best of all those providers who become a means of providing sustenance in the world, though only metaphorically. Sentences such as this have occurred at several places in the Quran, At some places Allah has been called the best of Creators, at others the best of Forgivers, the best of Rulers, the best of those who show mercy, or the best of Helpers. At all these places the reference of providing, creating, forgiving, showing mercy and offering help to the creatures is metaphorical, and to Allah real. It means that Allah is the best Provider, Creator, Forgiver, Helper and Bestower of Mercy of all those who appear to be giving you wages and means of sustenance, or who appear to be making things by their skill and workmanship, or who seem to be pardoning the errors of others, or showing mercy and helping other in this world.

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir: The Prohibition of leaving the Masjid while the Imam is delivering the Friday Sermon

Allah criticizes what happened during one Friday sermon, when a caravan arrived at Al-Madinah and the people rushed out to the merchandise. 

Allah said, (And when they see some merchandise or some amusement, they disperse headlong to it, and leave you standing.) meaning, on the Minbar, delivering the Khutbah. Several of the Tabi`in said this, such as Abu Al-`Aliyah, Al-Hasan, Zayd bin Aslam and Qatadah. Muqatil bin Hayyan said that the caravan belonged to Dihyah bin Khalifah before he became a Muslim, and there were drums accompanying it.So they rushed to the caravan and left Allah's Messenger standing on the Minbar. Only a few remained, according to the authentic Hadith that Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said, "Once, a caravan arrived at Al-Madinah while Allah's Messenger was giving a Khutbah. So, the people left, and only twelve men remained ﴿with the Messenger ﴾. 

Then Allah sent down this Ayah, (And when they see some merchandise or some amusement, they disperse headlong to it,)'' The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. 

Allah's statement, (And leave you standing.) proves that the Imam should deliver the speech on Friday while standing. In his Sahih, Imam Muslim recorded that Jabir bin Samurah said, "(During Jumu`ah,) the Prophet gave two speeches, and he used to sit between them. The Prophet would recite the Qur'an and remind the people (of Allah).'' 

Allah's statement, (Say: "That which Allah has...'') means the reward that is with Allah in the Hereafter,

(خَيْرٌ مِّنَ اللَّهْوِ وَمِنَ التِّجَـرَةِ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الرَزِقِينَ is better than any amusement or merchandise! And Allah is the best of providers.) means, for those who trust in Him and seek His provisions when they are allowed to do so. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Jumu`ah. All praise and thanks are due to Allah and from Him comes the success and immunity from error.

Yusuf Ali  Explanation
Do not be distracted by the craze for amusement or gain. If you lead a righteous and sober life, Allah will provide for you in all senses, better than any provision you can possibly think of.

Muhammad Asad Explanation:
Sc., "O Prophet" - thus alluding to an historical incident, when most of the congregation, on hearing that a long-expected trade caravan had come from Syria, rushed out of the mosque in the midst of the Prophet's Friday-sermon. In a wider, timeless sense, the above verse contains an allusion to an all-too-human weakness against which even true believers are not always immune: namely, the tendency to overlook religious obligations for the sake of a transitory, worldly advantage. 

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation: It is evident from these words that this incident happened more than once. However, narratives (Bukhari, no. 894; Muslim, no. 863) portray only one incident. The reason is that some uncouth elements must have been doing this at various times but no one gave them importance until at one instance a large number of Muslims deserted the Prophet (sws) while he was delivering the sermon. Since this was a wrong etiquette to the ultimate extent and also a show of not duly valuing the shari‘ah, the Qur’an mentioned it and people also narrated it.

You may now like to listen to explanation of the surah by eminent Muslim scholar Nouman Ali Khan:

Please refer to our Reference Page "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, explanation and exegesis of all other chapters of the Qur'an. You may also refer to our Reference Pages for knowing more about Islam and Quran.
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully. An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation and explanation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.  [2]
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources (links to Reference Pages given below):  
  • Towards Understanding the Quran
  • Tafsir Ibn Khatir
  • Muhammad Asad Translation
  • Al-Quran, Yusuf Ali Translation
  • Javed Ahmad Ghamidi / Al Mawrid
  • Verse by Verse Qur'an Study Circle
  • Tafsir Nouman Ali Khan
In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given below. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites:

Photo | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 67 | 8 | 9

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