Thursday 8 August 2019

Surah Al Muminoon (The Believers): Exegesis 23rd Chapter of Holy Quran - Part II

Sūrah Al-Mu’minūn /  Surah Al Muminoon is the twenty third surah with 118 ayahs with six rukus, part of the 18th Juzʼ  of the Holy Qur'an. The surah takes its name, Al-Mu'minun, from the first verse.

The surah was revealed during the middle stage of Prophethood at Makkah. It appears that the surah was sent down during the climax of the "Famine" in Makkah (as mentioned in verses 75-76), which according to authentic traditions occurred during the middle stage of Prophethood. Moreover, according to a tradition related by 'Urwah bin Zubair, Hadrat Umar, the second caliph, who had embraced Islam by that time, said, "This Surah was revealed in my presence and I myself observed the state of the Holy Prophet during its revelation. When the revelation ended , the Holy Prophet remarked, 'On this occasion ten such verses have been sent down to me that the one who measures up to them, will most surely go to Paradise'. Then he recited the initial verses of the surah." (Ahmad, Tirmizi, Nasai, Hakim).

The central theme of the surah is to invite the people to accept and follow the Message of Allah being delivered to them through Prophet and the whole Surah revolves round this theme.

For ease of understanding, the exegesis of the sūrah has been divided into two parts:
  • Part I  : Rukhu 1-3 (verses 1-50), which basically describe qualities of true believer, creation of man and the universe and stories of some of the former prophets and their communities have been cited as historical evidences of the truth of the Message. 
  • Part II : Rukhu 4-6 (verses 51-118), which include Prophet’s call to Allah’s path, mention of Polytheists and the concluding remarks.
We have already presented the Part I. Let us now read the translation and exegesis / tafseer in English of the Part II of the sūrah. For Arabic Text, please refer to the references given at the end and may also listen to its recitation in Arabic with English subtitles:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"
Rukhu 4 [51-77]
Verses 51-61 explain that Allah has said, "In fact, your religion is one religion; I am your Rabb, so fear Me alone"
( 51 ) [Allah said], "O messengers, eat from the good foods and work righteousness. Indeed, I, of what you do, am Knowing.
“Pure things” implies that they should be wholesome and must have been earned in lawful ways. Here the instruction, “eat of the pure things”, is meant to refute the theory and practice of asceticism. The Quran teaches the middle way between the life of asceticism and that of licence. The fact that the instruction, “eat of the pure things”, precedes “do righteous deeds”, is meant to impress that righteous deeds are meaningless without eating lawful provisions. The Prophet (peace be upon him) impressed this very thing by saying: O people, Allah is pure and loves pure things. Then he recited this (verse 51) and said: A person makes a long pilgrimage in a disheveled condition and prays with raised hands, O my Lord, O my Lord, whereas he eats unlawful food, wears unlawful clothes and has been brought up on unlawful provisions. How can such a one expect that Allah will grant his prayer? (Related by Abu Hurairah).

This verse also tells us that all the prophets were enjoined by Allah to do two things - eat food which is clean and permissible under Shariah, and to do good deeds, and considering that these injunctions have been addressed to prophets who are impeccable in any case, it is necessary that their followers should strive hard to mould their lives according to these injunctions. This in fact is the real meaning of this verse.
( 52 )   And indeed this, your religion, is one religion, and I am your Lord, so fear Me."
The original Arabic word ummat (community) comprises those individuals who have some basic things common among them. All the Messengers of Allah belonged to one and the same community because they had the same creed and the same religion and the same message.

See also (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayats 130-133, 213); (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayats 19-20, 33-34, 64,79-85); (Surah An- Nisa, Ayats 150-152); (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 59, 65, 73, 85); (Surah Yusuf, Ayats 37-40); (Surah Maryam, Ayats 49-59); and (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayats 71-93).
( 53 )   But the people divided their religion among them into sects - each faction, in what it has, rejoicing.
This is not a mere statement of a fact, but it is a link of the same argument which is being put forward from the very beginning of the Surah. The argument is this: Islam has been the real and original religion of all the Prophets from Noah to Jesus (peace be upon them all), because all of them brought and taught the same doctrines of Tauhid and the Hereafter. On the contrary, all the other religions are the perversions of the real and original religion, which has been tampered with in many ways. Therefore, those who are following the perverted religions are in the wrong and not the Prophet (peace be upon him) who is inviting them to the real and original religion.

The people who began to trade on the names of the prophets cut off that unity and made sects; and each sect rejoices in its own narrow doctrine, instead of taking the universal teaching of Unity from Allah. But this sectarian confusion is of man's making. It will last for a time, but the rays of Truth and Unity will finally dissipate it.
( 54 )   So leave them immersed in their heedlessness till an appointed time.
There is a gap between (verses 53 and 54), which has been left to the listener to fill, because the background of the whole discourse itself helps to fill it. Five years had passed since the Prophet (peace be upon him) had been inviting his people to the original religion. He had left no stone unturned to convince them by reasoning and by historical evidence that his message was based on the truth. His people had seen the practical results of the acceptance of his message and had witnessed his own high character which was by itself a guarantee that he was a trustworthy man. But in spite of all this, his people were rejoicing in their erroneous beliefs which they had inherited from their forefathers. This was not all. They had become his bitter enemies and were trying to defeat him and his message by every wicked machination.

After filling the gap, the meaning of (verse 51) becomes quite clear. It does not mean that the Prophet (peace be upon him) should give up his preaching and leave the disbelievers to themselves. This way of address has been employed to shake and rouse the disbelievers. This verse warns them to realize that the time was coming near when they would see for themselves that the Messenger was in the right and they were in the wrong.
( 55 )   Do they think that what We extend to them of wealth and children
( 56 )   We are busy lavishing on them all kinds of good? Nay, they do not perceive the reality of the matter.
 This question has been posed as a proof of the main theme of the Surah. It is meant to remove their misconception of success, welfare and prosperity, which the disbelievers had formed to delude themselves. According to them, the one, who enjoyed the good things of life and wielded power and influence in the society, had attained success. On the other hand, the he who was deprived of these things was a failure. This misconception had involved them in another serious misunderstanding. They thought that the one who had attained success was in the right, and the beloved of Allah. Otherwise, how could he have attained all the successes? On the contrary, the one who was apparently deprived of these things was surely wrong in his creed and erroneous in his deeds, and was under the wrath of God (or gods). As this misconception is one of the greatest deviations of the materialists, the Quran has stated it and refuted it in different ways at different places and made the reality plain.

For instance, see (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayats 126, 212); (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayat 32); (Surah At- Taubah, Ayats 55, 69, 85); (Surah Yunus, Ayat 17); (Surah Houd, Ayats 3, 27-31, 38-39); (Surah Ar-Rad, Ayat 26); (Surah Al-Kahf, Ayats 28, 32-43, 103-105); (Surah Maryam, Ayats 77-80); (Surah Ta-Ha, Ayats 131-132); (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayat 44).

In order to remove the above mentioned misconceptions one should keep in view the following.

(1) Success is a far higher thing than the material prosperity and the transitory success of an individual, community or nation.

(2) It is absolutely wrong to consider prosperity and success as a criterion of truth and falsehood.

(3) It should be noted well that this world is a place of test and trial and not a place of reward and retribution. It is true that even in this world, sometimes there is some punishment or reward, but it is on a very limited scale and even in this, there is an aspect of the test. Therefore it is an utter folly to consider material success and prosperity to be a proof that the recipient is in the right and so the beloved of the Lord, and vice versa. Moreover, the tests and trials of individuals and communities are of many varieties and a seeker after truth must understand at the outset that the worldly success or failure of the people is not the result of ultimate reward or punishment and cannot be regarded as the criterion for the right or wrong creed, morals and actions and a sign of being the beloved of God or otherwise.

(4) One must have a firm belief that truth and righteousness will ultimately gain victory over falsehood and wickedness. As regards to the criterion of truth and falsehood and right and wrong, one must judge this in the light of revelations and teachings of the Messengers, because common sense confirms the same, and it is also supported by the general conception which mankind has always had of good and evil.

(5) As a corollary of the above, it would have become clear that according to the Quran (and this is confirmed by common sense), the conception of reward and punishment should also be different from the common one. For instance, if a wicked person or community is enjoying prosperity, it is not a reward of its evil deeds but a harder test for it and it is not a blessing but the wrath of Allah. It means that Allah has decided to punish the prosperous people with a severe scourge. On the other hand, if the righteous people are suffering from hardships and afflictions, it is not a punishment from Allah but a blessing in disguise to pass them through the fire to remove impurity, if any, from the pure gold. If this hard trial is a blessing for the righteous people, it is a test for the wicked people to give them a severe punishment for the persecution of the former.
( 57 )   Indeed, they who are apprehensive from fear of their Lord
That is, they do not live a carefree life devoid of the fear of God. They live in awe of Him and are fully conscious that He oversees and watches them in all their motives and actions and they are thus deterred from thinking and doing evil.
( 58 )   And they who believe in the signs of their Lord
Signs here means both divine revelations to the Prophets and the signs found in man’s own self and in the universe around him. To believe in the verses of the Book is to affirm them, and to believe in the signs of human self and the universe is to affirm the realities which they point to.
( 59 )   And they who do not associate anything with their Lord
Though belief in the revelations itself ingrains the doctrine of Tawhid in the hearts, yet the believers have been warned to guard against shirk. This is because, in spite of believing in the revelations, man is inclined to commit shirk in one form or the other, for instance, in exaggerating the teachings of the Prophets and righteous people, supplicating and serving others than Allah, etc.
( 60 )   And they who give what they give while their hearts are fearful because they will be returning to their Lord
This verse (60) may be elaborated like this: They serve their Lord and try their best to obey Him and do righteous deeds, but all along they remain humble in their hearts and are not puffed up with the pride of their piety. Nay, in spite of all their good deeds, their hearts are always filled with awe that they shall have to render an account to their Lord, and they are not sure whether they will come out successful in the judgment of their Lord or not. A concrete interpretation of this verse is afforded by Umar. Although he served his Allah in a way that was exemplary, yet he was so afraid of accountability to Him that he is reported to have said before death: I shall consider it a favor, if I am neither rewarded nor punished in the Hereafter. Hasan Basri has expressed the same thing in a beautiful manner: A believer obeys Allah and is yet fearful of Him, and a hypocrite disobeys Allah and is yet fearless of Him.
( 61 )   It is those who hasten to good deeds, and they outstrip [others] therein.
Verses 62-77 mention that Allah has not charged any soul with more than it can bear and Those who do not believe in the hereafter will stray from the Right Path:
( 62 )   And We charge no soul except [with that within] its capacity, and with Us is a record which speaks with truth; and they will not be wronged.
The enunciation of this fundamental proposition, in the context in which it occurs, is very meaningful. In the preceding passage (verses 57-61), the characteristics of those people, who deserve true success, have been stated, and in this (verse 62), it has been made clear that those excellent qualities can be attained by anyone who tries to achieve true success, as if to say: The conditions We have laid down for true success are within the reach of those who strive for it, for “We do not lay a burden”. Therefore if you, O disbelievers, desire to achieve true success, you should follow the example of the believers from among yourselves, who have really attained it.

According to the Quran, an elaborate conduct book of every individual is being maintained accurately. This records every word he utters, every deed or act he performs, even every hidden thought and intention that he cherishes in his heart and mind. See also (Surah Al-Kahf, Ayat 49).

That is, neither a person will be accused of and punished for something he had not done, nor will he be deprived of the full reward of a good act that he had done.
( 63 )   But their hearts are covered with confusion over this, and they have [evil] deeds besides disbelief which they are doing,
This is said of the Unbelievers who rejected Faith and rejoiced in the vanities of this world. In spite of the proclamation of Truth, they are doubtful of the future Life and Judgment.

In addition to their rejection of Faith, they have against them positive deeds of wrong-doing, from which, on account of their contempt of the Light from Allah, they will not desist until they are sharply pulled up for punishment: and then repentance will be too late!
( 64 )   Until when We seize their affluent ones with punishment, at once they are crying [to Allah] for help.
The epicureans will probably be punished in this worldly life because in the enjoyment of luxury and pleasure they forgot the rights of the other people and transgressed the prescribed limits.

Juar is bellowing by a bull painfully. Here the word has been used tauntingly for a groaning person who does not deserve any mercy, as if to say: Now that you are going to be punished for your misdeeds, you have started bellowing.
( 65 )   Do not cry out today. Indeed, by Us you will not be helped.( 66 )   My verses had already been recited to you, but you were turning back on your heels
مُسۡتَكۡبِرِيۡنَ ​ۖ  بِهٖ سٰمِرًا تَهۡجُرُوۡنَ‏  
( 67 )   In arrogance regarding it, conversing by night, speaking evil.
The meeting places where the people of Makkah gathered together at night to hold consultations, to gossip and tell tales, etc.

Samir: one who remains awake by night, one who passes the night in talk or in the recital of stories of romances, a favourite amusement of the Days of Ignorance.
( 68 )   Then have they not reflected over the Qur'an, or has there come to them that which had not come to their forefathers?
That is, do they mean to imply that they reject the message because they do not understand it? Whereas the Quran is not an enigma, nor is it being presented in an incomprehensible language, nor does it deal with themes and subjects which are beyond human understanding. The fact is that they understand everything it presents, but they oppose and reject it, because they have no intention to follow and believe what it presents.

Is Quran presenting something which they had never heard before? No, that is not so. Allah had been sending His messages through His Prophets, who came to Arabia and in the adjoining lands and they are well acquainted with them, especially with Prophets Abraham and Ismael, and Houd, Saleh and Shoaib (peace be upon them all), who are acknowledged by them as Prophets of God, and who were not idol worshipers but enjoined the worship of One God.

If they ponder over the matter, they will find that Allah's Message to humanity is as old as Adam. It is good for all ages. It never grows old, and it is never new.
( 69 )   Or did they not know their Messenger, so they are toward him dis-acknowledging?
That is, do they reject the message because Muhammad (peace be upon him), who is inviting them to it, is a stranger among them? No, this is not so, for he was born and bred among them in a noble family. He bears a pure and high character. He has been truthful, upright, trustworthy, honest and morally chaste throughout his life, He is a noble and gentle person, peace-loving and just by nature, honest in word and deed, sympathetic and helpful to the weak and poor. And they themselves testified to all this before he claimed to be a Messenger of Allah. Then he has been consistently preaching the same message from the first day of his mission. Then whatever he has preached, he has first practiced it himself and demonstrated its truth. There has been no contradiction between his word and deed. He and his followers have faithfully and honestly put into practice the message of the Quran and shown excellent results.
( 70 )   Or do they say, "In him is madness?" Rather, he brought them the truth, but most of them, to the truth, are averse.
That is, do they reject his message because they regard Muhammad (peace be upon him) to be possessed by a jinn? No, this is also not correct, because in their hearts, they themselves regard him as a wise and sagacious person. It is therefore ridiculous to regard a man like him to be possessed by a jinn. For, such a person cannot say wise things and do noble deeds like him. How strange that a person possessed by a jinn (or having epileptic fits according to the western orientalists) should utter and recite sublime discourses of the Quran and start and guide a successful movement which should revolutionize the way of life not only of his own people but of the whole world.

وَلَوِ اتَّبَعَ الۡحَـقُّ اَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ لَفَسَدَتِ السَّمٰوٰتُ وَالۡاَرۡضُ وَمَنۡ فِيۡهِنَّ​ؕ بَلۡ اَتَيۡنٰهُمۡ بِذِكۡرِهِمۡ فَهُمۡ عَنۡ ذِكۡرِهِمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَؕ‏  
( 71 )   But if the Truth had followed their inclinations, the heavens and the earth and whoever is in them would have been ruined. Rather, We have brought them their message, but they, from their message, are turning away.
This brief sentence expresses a great reality which should be understood well. The foolish people in the world generally feel offended by a person who points out the truth to them. They do not like to hear and consider the truth because it goes against their desires and interests but the truth remains the truth and cannot be changed after one's personal whims and wishes. Man is subject to the eternal and unalterable laws operating in the universe and has therefore to adjust his thinking, desires and conduct accordingly and should try to discover the truth and reality through experience, reasoning and observation. Only a foolish person can stick to and regard his personal whims, wishes and prejudices to be the reality and refuse to hear and consider any argument, however rational and scientific, simply because it goes against them.

The word zikr in this verse means: (1) Mention of human nature and its demands. (2) Admonition. (3) Esteem, honor and fame.

In the light of these, the full meaning of the verse will be: Your rejection of the Quran is irrational, for it contains the mention of those things which develop the best in human nature. It is an admonition that will result in your own good and well being, and it will bring esteem and honour for you in this world as well as in the Hereafter.
( 72 )   Or do you, [O Muhammad], ask them for payment? But the reward of your Lord is best, and He is the best of providers. 
This was yet another proof of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) Prophethood. He was conveying the message without demanding any recompense for it, and he had no self interest in it. Nay, he had staked his business, reputation, peaceful home life, relationships with the unbelieving kindred for the success of his mission and was being ruthlessly persecuted for its sake. A selfish person could not have risked his all for the sake of only worldly motives. He would rather have exploited the racial and tribal prejudices of his people to become their ruler and leader. On the contrary, his message not only cut at the root of those prejudices but tended to destroy the very bases which helped his tribe to wield influence and authority over the polytheists of Arabia. This is an argument which the Quran has advanced again and again as a proof of the truth of the mission of the other Prophets as well.

See (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayat 90); (Surah Yunus, Ayat 72); (Surah Hud, Ayats 29, 51); (Surah Yusuf, Ayat 104); (Surah Ya-Seen, Ayat 21)
( 73 )   And indeed, you invite them to a straight path. 
( 74 )   But indeed, those who do not believe in the Hereafter are deviating from the path.
This was the real reason why they were deviating from the right path. As they did not believe in the Hereafter, they thought that no account would be taken from them of what they did in this world. Therefore it did not matter whether they followed the truth or falsehood. Their only aim in life was to gratify the lusts of the flesh and gratify them in the best way possible.
( 75 )   And even if We gave them mercy and removed what was upon them of affliction, they would persist in their transgression, wandering blindly.
The affliction alluded to in this verse was the famine which occurred in Makkah some time after the advent of Prophethood. According to Abdullah bin Masud, when the Quraish persistently refused to accept the invitation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and started putting up stiff resistance, he prayed: O Allah, help me against them with a seven year famine like the seven year famine of the time of Prophet Joseph. So a severe famine started in Makkah with the result that people were obliged to eat carrion.

This famine has been alluded to in a number of Makki Surahs.  For instance see (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 42-44); (Surah Al- Aaraf, Ayats 94-99); (Surah Yunus, Ayats 11, 12, 21); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 112-113) and (Surah Ad-Dukhan, Ayats 10- 16 )
( 76 )   And We had gripped them with suffering [as a warning], but they did not yield to their Lord, nor did they humbly supplicate, [and will continue thus]
Some Commentators understand the battle of Badr to be meant here; if so, this particular verse would be of the Madinah period. But it is better to understand it as referring to the same "distress" as in the preceding verse, or to punishments in general, which obstinate sinners refuse to take as warnings given to them to mend their ways and turn in repentance to Allah.

حَتّٰٓى اِذَا فَتَحۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ بَابًا ذَا عَذَابٍ شَدِيۡدٍ اِذَا هُمۡ فِيۡهِ مُبۡلِسُوۡنَ‏ 
( 77 )   Until when We have opened before them a door of severe punishment, immediately they will be therein in despair.
The Arabic word mublis is used for one whom frustration makes so desperate and obdurate that he does not hesitate to resort to any crime. The Devil has been called Iblis for the same reason.

Rukhu 5 [78-92]
Verses 78-83 mention that Allah has given you ears, eyes, and hearts, but you seldom show gratitude:
( 78 )   And it is He who produced for you hearing and vision and hearts; little are you grateful.
As elsewhere, "heart" is to be understood as the seat both of feeling and intelligence. 'All the means by which knowledge can be gathered, judgment formed, and goodness cultivated, are provided for you by Allah. If you were grateful, you would use those in My service, which is expressed in your service to your fellow men. But instead you ignore these gifts, question Allah's Providence, and blaspheme against Him!'
( 79 )   And it is He who has multiplied you throughout the earth, and to Him you will be gathered.
( 80 )   And it is He who gives life and causes death, and His is the alternation of the night and the day. Then will you not reason?
If one makes the right use of his faculties and observes these things properly, he can find the truth, for it is obvious that the great mechanism of the universe could not have come into existence by a mere accident. There must be its Creator who need not have any associates or partners and that the universe could not have been created without a purpose as a mere sport. The very existence of a wonderful, rational thinking and feeling creature, man, who has been delegated with powers, is a clear proof that his real life will not come to an end at death.

The alternation of Night and Day stands here as a symbol for all the beneficent processes of Nature provided by Allah for the comfort and growth of man's outer and inner life.

Here attention is being drawn to the proof of both Tauhid and life after death, and in the other phenomena cited to the refutation of both shirk and rejection of the Hereafter.
( 81 )   Rather, they say like what the former peoples said.
And they are the more culpable, as they have received a later and completer revelation. Why should they now stand on the primitive ideas of their ancestors?
( 82 )   They said, "When we have died and become dust and bones, are we indeed to be resurrected?( 83 )   We have been promised this, we and our forefathers, before; this is not but legends of the former peoples." ( 84 )   Say, [O Muhammad], "To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know?"
( 85 )   They will say, "To Allah." Say, "Then will you not remember?"
If their argument is that such things about a future life cannot be known or proved, they are referred to the things which are actually before them. The tangible things of the earth-can they postulate their order or government except by a Power or Force or Energy outside them? They will admit that there is such a Power or Force or Energy. We call it Allah. Go a step further. We see a sublime Universe in the heavens above, stretching far, far beyond our ken. They will admit its existence and its grandeur. We ask them to entertain a feeling of reverence for the Power behind it, and to understand their own littleness and their dependence upon that Power.
( 86 )   Say, "Who is Lord of the seven heavens and Lord of the Great Throne?"
( 87 )   They will say, "[They belong] to Allah." Say, "Then will you not fear Him?"
'If this great and glorious Universe inspires you with awe, surely the Power behind is more worthy of your awe, especially if you compare your dependence and its dependence upon Him.'

That is, why are you not afraid of rebelling against Him and worshiping others besides Him? Why do you not dread that one day you shall have to give an account of all your deeds to the All-Powerful Sovereign of the universe?

قُلۡ مَنۡۢ بِيَدِهٖ مَلَكُوۡتُ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ وَّهُوَ يُجِيۡرُ وَلَا يُجَارُ عَلَيۡهِ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ‏ 
( 88 )   Say, "In whose hand is the realm of all things - and He protects while none can protect against Him - if you should know?"
The word malakut in the text is a strong word which combines both sovereignty and ownership. The verse therefore means: Whose is the Sovereignty and Who possesses the real ownership rights over everything?
( 89 )   They will say, "[All belongs] to Allah." Say, "Then how are you deluded?"
In order to understand the significance of this question, we should know that the art of magic makes a thing appear different from what it really is. Thus the question will mean: Who has bewitched you that, in spite of knowing and acknowledging all these things, you do not understand the reality? Who has bewitched you that even after acknowledging Allah to be the Owner and the All-Powerful Sovereign, you set up other owners and sovereigns along with Him or make them partners with Him and worship them? Who has deluded you that you should dare to be treacherous and unfaithful to Allah knowing that none can protect you against Him, and forget that you will be called to account for these things?

In this connection, it should also be noted that this question has a subtle meaning also. The Quraish accused the Prophet (peace be upon him) of practicing magic and sorcery. This question turns the tables on them, as if to say, O people, the man who presents the reality appears to you to be a sorcerer, while those leaders who say things against reality, against common sense and against your own convictions and beliefs, do not appear to you to be sorcerers at all.
( 90 )   Rather, We have brought them the truth, and indeed they are liars.
They are liars because they say that others besides Allah have a share in His Godhead and that there is no life after death, because their first saying contradicts their own admission that Allah is the Owner and the Sovereign of the universe. Then their second assertion is based on the presumption that the All-Powerful Allah cannot recreate what He has created once. This is clearly a contradiction in terms.

Verses 91-92 Allah has never begotten a son, nor there is any other god besides Him:
( 91 )   Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any deity. [If there had been], then each deity would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe [concerning Him].
The multiplicity of gods is intellectually indefensible, considering the unity of Design and Purpose in His wonderful Universe.

 It should be, noted that this is a general refutation of the belief that Allah has a child or children, and incidentally refutes the Christian belief that Christ is the son of God. Yet even some eminent commentators confine this to the refutation of the Christian belief. Obviously, there is no reason why it was necessary to refute the Christian belief specifically in this context, when the whole discourse has been directed towards the disbelievers of Makkah alone, who were, like the Christians, guilty of this sort of shirk.

Here the argument of Tawhid is based on this principle: Had there been more than one God or partners in Godhead, there would have been serious differences, conflicts and wars among the different sovereigns and rulers. See (Surah Bani Israil, Ayat 42 ) and (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayat 22).
( 92 )   [He is] Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, so high is He above what they associate [with Him].
To suppose that Allah has a son or family or partners or companions is to have a low idea of Allah, Who is high above all such relationships. He is the One True God, and there can be none to compare with Him

Rukhu 6 [93-118]
The last rukhu is the concluding rukhu of the surah. Herein, it is stressed that prayer shows that a believer is always a God-fearing person.  Even when God’s punishment is directed towards others, he starts trembling with fear.  He starts addressing God in all humility, because he knows that, if he is to be saved, it will not be solely by his deeds, rather with God’s mercy.

Verses 93-98 mention that Repel evil with good Seek refuge with Allah against the temptations of Shaitan.
( 93 )   Say, [O Muhammad], "My Lord, if You should show me that which they are promised,
In the first instance, this applied to the holy Prophet. His subsequent Hijrat from Makkah and the eventual overthrow of the Makkan oligarchy amply prove the fulfilment of the prophecy. But in general meaning it applies to all. We are taught that evil will be visited with a terrible punishment, not only in a future life, but in this very life when its cup is full and the time comes for punishment in Allah's Plan. If it has to come while we are still on the scene of this life, we are asked to pray that we may not be found in the company of those who draw such punishment on themselves. In other words we must eschew the society of evil ones.
( 94 )   My Lord, then do not place me among the wrongdoing people."
This prayer does not mean that, God forbid, there was any real danger of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) also being involved in the punishment, or that if he had not invoked this prayer, he might have been involved in it. This way of address has been adopted to warn that all people should fear Allah’s punishment. They should not demand it nor persist in their wickedness, if Allah gives them respite. As a matter of fact, Allah’s punishment is a thing which should be dreaded not only by the sinful people but also by the righteous people, and they should all seek His refuge from it, for when the scourge of God comes, it does not destroy only the wicked people but may also involve the righteous people in it. Therefore the right course for those, who have to live in a wicked society, is that they should always pray to Allah for His refuge, for one does not know when that scourge might come down.
( 95 )   And indeed, We are able to show you what We have promised them.
( 96 )   Repel, by [means of] what is best, [their] evil. We are most knowing of what they describe.
Whether people speak evil of you, in your presence or behind your back, or they do evil to you in either of those ways, all is known to Allah. It is not for you to punish. Your best course is not to do evil in your tum, but to do what will best repel the evil. Two evils do not make a good.
( 97 )   And say, "My Lord, I seek refuge in You from the incitements of the devils,( 98 )   And I seek refuge in You, my Lord, lest they be present with me."
Verses 99-111 Wrongdoers will wish that they be sent back to this world to adopt the Right Way, but it will be too late
( 99 )   [For such is the state of the disbelievers], until, when death comes to one of them, he says, "My Lord, send me back
This verse connects on with xxiii. 90 above. Though Allah proclaims His Truth everywhere, the wicked cling to Falsehood until they face the reality of Death.

The verb for "send me back" is in the plural in Arabic, which is construed either (1) as an emphatic form, as if the singular were repeated, or (2) as a plural of respect, though such a plural is not ordinarily used in addressing Allah, or (3) as a plural addressed to the angels, after the address to Allah in "O my Lord!"
( 100 )   That I might do righteousness in that which I left behind." No! It is only a word he is saying; and behind them is a barrier until the Day they are resurrected.
It occurs at several places in the Quran that each of the criminals, after his death till his entry into Hell, and even after that, will plead again and again: Lord, send me back to the world, I will no more disobey Thee, I will now do righteous deeds. See (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 27, 28); (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayat 53); (Surah Ibrahim, Ayats 44, 45); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayat 102); (Surah Al-Fatir, Ayat 37); (Surah Az- Zumar, Ayats 58, 59); (Surah Al-Momin, Ayats 10-12), and (Surah Ash-Shura, Ayats 44 ).

That is, he will never be sent back nor given another opportunity, for in that case the test and trial for which man is sent to this world becomes meaningless. For further explanation, see (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 210) .

And when he has met his doom, he has nothing more to say than that he should be sent back to the world; so let him say what he likes; he will never be allowed to go back. For now there is a barrier between them and the world, which will not allow them to go back to it. Therefore they shall remain in that state until the Day of Resurrection.
( 101 )   So when the Horn is blown, no relationship will there be among them that Day, nor will they ask about one another.
It does not mean that the father will not remain father and the son will not remain son, etc. It only means that they will not be able to help each other, nor shall they be able to inquire about each other as father and son, for each one will be worried and anxious about his own plight. See (Surah Al-Maarij, Ayats 10-14), and (Surah Abasa, Ayats 34- 37).
( 102 )   And those whose scales are heavy [with good deeds] - it is they who are the successful.
Good and evil deeds will be weighed against each other. If the good deeds prevail, the soul will attain falah, i.e., prosperity, well-being, bliss, or salvation; if the contrary, there will be the misery and anguish of Hell.
( 103 )   But those whose scales are light - those are the ones who have lost their souls, [being] in Hell, abiding eternally.
The loss or perdition will not mean that they will die and feel no more: xiv. 17. The punishment will mean nothing, if there was no sensibility, but total annihilation.
( 104 )   The Fire will sear their faces, and they therein will have taut smiles.
That is to say, their faces will be disfigured with anguish, and their lips will quiver and fall out of place, exposing their teeth.
( 105 )   [It will be said]. "Were not My verses recited to you and you used to deny them?"
( 106 )   They will say, "Our Lord, our wretchedness overcame us, and we were a people astray.
'The evil in us conquered us; it was our misfortune that we surrendered to evil, and went astray.' They forget that it was by their own deliberate choice that they surrendered to evil, and they are reminded in verses 109-110 of the ridicule with which they covered godly men in their life on earth.
( 107 )   Our Lord, remove us from it, and if we were to return [to evil], we would indeed be wrongdoers."
( 108 )   He will say, "Remain despised therein and do not speak to Me.
After their flouting of Allah's Signs and their mockery of godly men on earth, they have forfeited their right to plead for mercy before Allah's Throne.
( 109 )   Indeed, there was a party of My servants who said, 'Our Lord, we have believed, so forgive us and have mercy upon us, and You are the best of the merciful.'
( 110 )   But you took them in mockery to the point that they made you forget My remembrance, and you used to laugh at them.
Literally, 'they made you forget My Message'. The ungodly were so occupied in the backbiting and ridicule of the godly that the godly themselves became the unconscious cause of the ungodly forgetting the warnings declared by Allah against those who do not treat His Signs seriously. Thus evil often brings about its own ruin through the instrumentality of those whom it would make its victims.
( 111 )   Indeed, I have rewarded them this Day for their patient endurance - that they are the attainers [of success]."
Verses 112-115 On the day of Judgement it will appear as if the life of this world was less than a day

قٰلَ كَمۡ لَبِثۡتُمۡ فِى الۡاَرۡضِ عَدَدَ سِنِيۡنَ‏ 
( 112 )   [Allah] will say, "How long did you remain on earth in number of years?"
The Hafs reading is "Qala", "He will say". This follows the Kufa Qiraat. The Basra Qiraat reads "Qul", "Say" (in the imperative). The point is only one of grammatical construction.
( 113 )   They will say, "We remained a day or part of a day; ask those who enumerate."
( 114 )   He will say, "You stayed not but a little - if only you had known.
That is, Our Messengers warned you that the life in this world is transitory and is for test and trial, but you did not realize it then and denied that there was any life in the Hereafter and behaved in accordance with that belief.

اَفَحَسِبۡتُمۡ اَنَّمَا خَلَقۡنٰكُمۡ عَبَثًا وَّاَنَّكُمۡ اِلَيۡنَا لَا تُرۡجَعُوۡنَ‏  
( 115 )   Then did you think that We created you uselessly and that to Us you would not be returned?"
The Arabic word abathan in the text also means “for the sake of sport”. Then the verse will mean: Did you think that We had created you merely for the sake of sport and there was no purpose behind your creation? Therefore you may eat, drink, be merry and enjoy yourself as you please.

Verses 112-115 On the day of Judgement it will appear as if the life of this world was less than a day
( 116 )   So exalted is Allah, the Sovereign, the Truth; there is no deity except Him, Lord of the Noble Throne.
Allah is above this that He should create you without any purpose and that you may associate partners with Him with impunity.
( 117 )   And whoever invokes besides Allah another deity for which he has no proof - then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed.
It may also be translated as: The one who invokes any other deity along with Allah, has nothing to support him in this act. And that he cannot escape accountability. Here again, the reference is to those who will attain the success and to those who will be deprived of it.

Not with any one else whatever, as Allah is the Eternal Reality. If men, out of the figments of their imagination, fancy other gods, they will be rudely undeceived. And Allah is Lord, i.e., our Cherisher as well as our Creator. In spite of all our shortcomings and our rebellions, He will forgive us if we go to Him not on our merits but on His grace.

See the same word used in describing the contrast with the Believers, in the first verse of this Sura. Righteousness must win and all opposition to it must fail. Thus the circle of the argument is completed.
( 118 )   And, [O Muhammad], say, "My Lord, forgive and have mercy, and You are the best of the merciful."
The last verse of the surah is in fact a prayer.  Compare and contrast this prayer with (verse 109). Here the Prophet (peace be upon him) has been told to make the same prayer as contained in (verse 109), as if to say, You (and your followers) should supplicate Allah with the same prayer so that, if the people scoff at you, they themselves might provide a proof of a strong case against themselves.

The prayer shows that a believer is always a God-fearing person.  Even when God’s punishment is directed towards others, he starts trembling with fear.  He starts addressing God in all humility, because he knows that, if he is to be saved, it will not be solely by his deeds, rather with God’s mercy.

You may now like to listen to Arabic recitation of Sūrah Al-Mu’minūn with English subtitles:

You may refer to our post "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, meaning and summary / exegesis of other chapters (Though not complete but building up from 30th Juzʼ / Part backwards for chapters in 30th Juzʼ / Part are shorter and easier to understand). 

Photo | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. [2]
  • In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites. 
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