Sunday 1 September 2019

Surah Al Maidah - The Table Spread: The 5th Chapter of Holy Quran - Exegesis Part II

Surah Al Māʼidah is the fifth surah with 120 ayahs with 16 rukus, part of the 6th-7th Juzʼ  of the Holy Qur'an. The theme of this Surah indicates, and traditions support it, that it was revealed after the treaty of Hudaibiyah at the end of 6 A. H. or in the beginning of 7 A. H. That is why it deals with those problems that arose from this treaty.

This Sarah takes its' name from verse 112 in which the word "mai'dah" occurs. Like the names of many other surahs, this name has no special relation to the subject of the Surah but has been used merely as a symbol to distinguish it from other surahs.

Surah Al Māʼidah is one of the longest surahs of the Holy Qur'an with many a important subject discussed in this surah. Owing to its length, the exegesis / tafseer of the surah has been broken down in the following parts for better understanding:
  • The Overview of the surah (already published) gave an overall perspective of the surah, its back ground and the diverse and important subjects discussed therein. The central theme of the surah is the regulation of lawful and unlawful food, obedience to which is considered as part of the pledge between God and the believers.  It also talks about hunting for food during the pilgrimage.  God had also taken pledges from the Jews and Christians and the chapter deals with what they did to their pledges.  Some passages deal with the afterlife and the verdict of the messengers on the behavior of their communities.  Jesus is mentioned when his disciples asked him to pray to God and of his renouncing any claim to divinity.
Now we commence with the exegesis / tafseer of the surah divided into following four parts:
  • Part I    : Rukhu / Section 1-6 [Verses 1-43]
  • Part II   : Rukhu / Section 7-8 [Verses 44-56] - This Part
  • Part III  : Rukhu / Section 9-11 [Verses 57-86]
  • Part IV  : Rukhu / Section 12-16 [Verses 87-120]
We have already presented the Part I of the surah. Let us now read the translation and exegesis / tafseer of Part II of the surah in English. For Arabic Text, please refer to the references given at the end and may also listen to its recitation in Arabic with English subtitles:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"

Rukhu / Section 7 [44-50]
In this portion of the surah, aspects like Obligation to judge by what God has revealed, matters related to Jews and the Torah, Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) and the Gospel and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the Quran are mentioned.

Verses 44-45 Laws of Torah and Those who do not judge by the laws of Allah, They are unbelievers, They are wrongdoers.

اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا التَّوۡرٰٮةَ فِيۡهَا هُدًى وَّنُوۡرٌ​ ۚ يَحۡكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّوۡنَ الَّذِيۡنَ اَسۡلَمُوۡا لِلَّذِيۡنَ هَادُوۡا وَ الرَّبَّانِيُّوۡنَ وَالۡاَحۡبَارُ بِمَا اسۡتُحۡفِظُوۡا مِنۡ كِتٰبِ اللّٰهِ وَكَانُوۡا عَلَيۡهِ شُهَدَآءَ​​ ۚ فَلَا تَخۡشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخۡشَوۡنِ وَلَا تَشۡتَرُوۡا بِاٰيٰتِىۡ ثَمَنًا قَلِيۡلًا​ ؕ وَمَنۡ لَّمۡ يَحۡكُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ فَاُولٰٓـئِكَ هُمُ الۡكٰفِرُوۡنَ‏  
( 44 )   Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allah] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the disbelievers.
Rabbani may be rightly translated by the Jewish title of Rabbi for their learned men, religious scholars or theologians, Jewish learning is identified with Rabbinical literature. Ahbar is the plural of hibr or habr, by which we may understand Jewish Doctors of Law or religious jurist. Later the term was applied to those of other religions.

They were living witnesses to the truth of Scripture, and could testify that they had made it known to the people: Cf. ii. 143, and iv. 135.

Two charges are made, against the Jews: (1) that even the books which they had, they twisted in meaning, to suit their own purposes, because they feared men rather than Allah: (2) that what they had was but fragments of the original Law given to Moses, mixed up with a lot of semi-historical and legendary matter, and some fine poetry. The Torah mentioned in the Qur'an is not the Old Testament as we have it: nor is it even the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament, containing the Law embedded in a great deal of semi-historical and legendary narrative).

While the Prophets of Israel laid great stress upon them. The Jews had, however, become very negligent about these duties. Congregational Prayer had all but ceased among them; in fact, a great majority of the Jews did not perform Prayers even individually. They had also not only ceased to pay Purifying Alms, but some had even gone so far as to make their living out of interest.

It is not enough for believers to uphold justice themselves: they are expected to be its standard-bearers. They are supposed not merely to practice justice in their own dealings but to strive for its triumph. They have to do all within their power to ensure that injustice is eradicated and replaced by equity and justice. A true believer is required to be the pillar supporting the establishment of right and justice.

The testimony of the believers should be solely for the sake of God. Their testimony should not be biased in favour of any of the parties concerned, they should not use any opportunity for personal aggrandizement, and they should not seek to please anyone but God.
( 45 )   And We ordained for them therein a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds is legal retribution. But whoever gives [up his right as] charity, it is an expiation for him. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the wrongdoers.
Recall Exodus 21:23-25 [New International Version (NIV)]
"23 But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise."
Whoever forgoes his right of retaliation does a good deed which will atone for many of his sins. The same is confirmed by a tradition of the Prophet (peace be on him) in which he said: 'Whoever receives an injury on his body, then pardons (the inflictor of the injury), his sins are atoned for to the measure of his pardoning.' (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, pp. 316, 329 - Ed.)

The seeming repetitions at the end of verses 47, 48 and 50 are not real repetitions. The significant words in the three cases are: Unbelievers, wrong-doers, and rebellious; and each fits the context. If the Jews tamper with their books they are Unbelievers; if they give false judgments, they are wrong-doers. If the Christians follow not their light, they are rebellious.

Verses 46-47 They are transgressors
( 46 )   And We sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming that which came before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel, in which was guidance and light and confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as guidance and instruction for the righteous.
The Messiah did not expound a new religion. That very religion which had been the religion of all the Prophets was also his religion, and it is towards that religion that he called people. He believed in the true teachings of the Torah which were extant in his time, and the Gospels (Injil) confirm this (see, for example, Matthew 5: 17-18). The Qur'an repeatedly stresses the fundamental fact that none of the Prophets of God, no matter in which part of the world they appeared, denied the Prophets who had preceded them. On the contrary, each Prophet confirmed the message of his predecessors and sought to promote the mission which was the sacred legacy of them all. God did not reveal any of the Books in order to repudiate the previous ones; each confirmed and supported the preceding ones.
( 47 )   And let the People of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient.
Here three judgements are issued against those who do not judge in accordance with the Law revealed by God. The first is that they are kafir (unbelievers); the second, that they are zalim (wrong-doers); and the third, that they are fasiq (transgressors). This clearly means that one who, in disregard of God's commandments and of the Laws revealed by Him, pronounces judgements according to man-made laws (whether made by himself or by others) is guilty of three major offences:
  • First, his act amounts to rejecting the commandment of God, and this rejection is equivalent to kufr (infidelity, unbelief). 
  • Second, his act is contrary to justice, for only the laws made by God are in complete accord with the dictates of justice. Any judgement in contravention of God's injunctions amounts, therefore, to committing injustice (zulm). 
  • Third, when he enforces either his own or anyone else's law in disregard of the Laws of his Lord he steps out of the fold of subjection and obedience, and this constitutes fisq (transgression). 
Kufr, zulm and fisq are essential elements in deviation from God's commandments. One finds them wherever there is deviation from the commandment of God. There is variation in the degree of deviation and hence in the degree of these three offences. Whoever passes judgement on something in opposition to an injunction of God, believing that injunction to be false, and holds either his own or anyone else's judgement to be sound, is an unbeliever (kafir), wrong-doer (zalim) and transgressor (fasiq). A man who is convinced that the injunctions of God are right but makes judgements contrary to them in practice is not an unbeliever in the sense that he ceases to remain a member of the Islamic community, but he is guilty of adulterating his faith by blending it with kufr, zulm and fisq. In the same manner, those who deviate from the injunctions of God in all matters are unbelievers, wrong-doers and transgressors. For those who are obedient in some respects and disobedient in others, the blending of faith and submission to God with the opposite attributes of unbelief, wrong-doing and transgression in their lives will be exactly in proportion to the mixture of their obedience to and their deviation from God's commands.

Some commentators have attempted to restrict the application of these verses to the People of the Book alone. The verses, however, hardly lend themselves to such a restrictive interpretation. The best answer to such a restrictive interpretation has been given by the Companion Hudhayfah. When someone told him that these verses related merely to the Israelites, meaning that the unbelievers, wrong-doers and transgressors were only the Jews who passed judgement contrary to the injunctions revealed by God, Hudhayfah remarked: 'What good brothers these Israelites are to you! Whatever is bitter goes to them; whatever is sweet comes to you. Nay, by God, you will follow their way, your steps following theirs.'

Verses 48-50 Diversity of human race and Establish justice based on Allah's revelations
( 48 )   Then We revealed the Book to you (O Muhammad!) with Truth, confirming whatever of the Book was revealed before, and protecting and guarding over it.79 Judge, then, in the affairs of men in accordance with the Law that Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires in disregard of the Truth which has come to you. For each of you We have appointed a Law and a way of life.80 And had Allah so willed, He would surely have made you one single community; instead, (He gave each of you a Law and a way of life) in order to test you by what He gave you. Vie, then, one with another in good works. Unto Allah is the return of all of you; and He will then make you understand the truth concerning the matters on which you disagreed.81
"Then We revealed the Book to you (O Muhammad!) with Truth, confirming whatever of the Book was revealed before": This points to a fact of major significance. It could also have been said that the Qur'an confirms all those parts of the earlier divine books which are still extant in their true and original form. But the sense has been conveyed by employing the word 'the Book' rather than 'the previous Books'. This expression reveals that the Qur'an and all those Books sent down by God at various times and in different languages in reality constitute one and the same Book. Their Author is one and the same; their aim and purpose are the same; their teaching is the same; and the knowledge which they seek to impart to mankind is the same. The difference between these Books lies in their modes of expression, and this was necessarily so since they were addressed to different audiences. It is, therefore, not merely that these divine books support rather than contradict each other but that they are actually different editions of one and the same book - 'the Book'.

"and protecting and guarding over it": After the corruption of the older revelations, the Qur'an comes with a twofold purpose: (1) to confirm the true and original Message, and (2) to guard it, or act as a check to its interpretation. The Arabic word Muhaimin used in the verse is very comprehensive in meaning. It means one who safeguards, watches over, stands witness, preserves, and upholds. The Qur'an safeguards "the Book", for it has preserved within it the teachings of all the former Books. It watches over these Books in the sense that it will not let their true teachings to be lost. It supports and upholds these Books in the sense that it corroborates the Word of Allah which has remained intact in them. It stands a witness because it bears testimony to the Word of Allah contained in these Books and helps to sort it out from the interpretations and commentaries of the people which were mixed with it: what is confirmed by the Qur'an is the Word of Allah and what is against it is that of the people.

"Judge, then, in the affairs of men in accordance with the Law that Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires in disregard of the Truth which has come to you. For each of you We have appointed a Law and a way of life." This is a parenthetical phrase, the purpose of which is to elucidate a question which is likely to arise in the mind of the reader who has read the above section and might feel uneasy. The question is: Why do the religious laws propounded by the various Prophets differ in matters of detail even though the Prophets and their Books preach one and the same religion (din) and even confirm and support each other? Why is it that in regard to the prescribed forms of worship, the regulations concerning what is permitted and what is prohibited, and the detailed legal regulations governing the social and collective life, there is some disagreement among the various laws propounded by the different Prophets and the divine Books?

"And had Allah so willed, He would surely have made you one single community; instead, (He gave each of you a Law and a way of life) in order to test you by what He gave you. Vie, then, one with another in good works. Unto Allah is the return of all of you; and He will then make you understand the truth concerning the matters on which you disagreed." This constitutes a detailed answer to the above question. It consists of the following points:
(1) It is a mistake to think that variations in religious laws result from a difference of source. It is God Himself Who altered the legal prescriptions to suit different nations at different times and in different circumstances.
(2) It was indeed possible, by devising one legal code for all human beings, for all men to have been made into one nation (ummah). But one of the many benevolent considerations keeping the religious laws of various Prophets different from one another was that God wanted this difference to become a means of testing people. Those who understand true religion, who have grasped its spirit and essence, and who are aware of the true importance of the different legal prescriptions, always recognize the Truth and accept it whatever its form. They have no hesitation in accepting the new ordinances of God in place of the old ones, in contrast to those who are not conversant with the spirit of true religion and who seem to identify it with a specific body of legal minutiae. Such people have overlaid God-given principles with their own legal deductions, and have subsequently fossilized this entire amalgam, seeking to preserve it in its entirety. They have grown so attached to it that, in order to preserve it, they spurn every directive which subsequently comes to them from God. In order to distinguish the people of the first category from those of the second God made the legal prescriptions of the various Prophets vary.
(3) The real purpose of all the divine religious laws is the attainment of goodness and righteousness. This purpose can be achieved only when a man obeys whatever commandment he receives from God at a particular time. The proper mode of conduct for people who keep their eyes fixed on this true purpose is to strive for God's good pleasure rather than quarrel about differences in the legal prescriptions of the various Prophets.
(4) The differences which have arisen because of the unjustified rigidity, prejudice, obduracy and erroneous attitudes of the human mind can be finally settled neither in the debating hall nor on the battlefield. The final judgement will be made by God Himself. Then the reality of everything will be fully uncovered, and it will be clear how much truth and falsehood underlay the squabbles which whole lives were wasted over. 
( 49 )   And judge, [O Muhammad], between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations and beware of them, lest they tempt you away from some of what Allah has revealed to you. And if they turn away - then know that Allah only intends to afflict them with some of their [own] sins. And indeed, many among the people are defiantly disobedient.
Following this parenthetical clause, the previous subject is resumed.
( 50 )   Then is it the judgement of [the time of] ignorance they desire? But who is better than Allah in judgement for a people who are certain [in faith].
The Arabic word jahiliyah (literally 'ignorance') is used as an antonym to Islam. Islam is the way of 'ilm (true knowledge), since it is God Himself Who has shown this way, and His knowledge embraces everything. In contrast is the way that diverges from Islam - the path of Ignorance (jahiliyah). The pre-Islamic period in Arabia is designated as jahiliyah because this was the era when human beings derived their norms from either superstitious beliefs, conjectures and imagination or from their desires. Whenever such an attitude is adopted, it is bound to be designated as Ignorance. The appellation 'jahiliyah' will apply to every aspect of life which is developed in disregard of the knowledge made available by God, based only on man's partial knowledge blended with imagination, superstitious fancies, conjectures and desires.

Rukhu / Section 8 [51-56]
Verses 51-53 Do not take Jews or Christians as your protectors
( 51 )   O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They are [in fact] allies of one another. And whoever is an ally to them among you - then indeed, he is [one] of them. Indeed, Allah guides not the wrongdoing people.
In the Arabian Peninsula there was a tribal system. It meant that if you belong to a certain tribe and that tribe goes to war then you go to war with them. You were allies for good times and bad. For example, Prophet’s uncle Abu Talib never accepted him as a Messenger but his support for Allah’s Messenger didn’t halt either. For Abu Talib his kinship with the Prophet (peace be upon him) was significant. He couldn’t leave his nephew alone because he was one of his own – one from his tribe.

When the Prophet (peace be upon him) came to Medina he entered into a treaty with the Jews and the Christians that they will neither fight against Muslims nor help another tribe at war with them, rather, they would join Muslims to fight against them. The Muslims had come to Medina leaving all their wealth and businesses behind. They were not financially strong but when they became victorious in the Battle of Badr. The mushrikeen / disbelievers seeing the political benefits of becoming a Muslim decided to convert to Islam. In reality, however, they were hypocrites. Jews being financially stronger than the Muslims were the allies of these hypocrites.

After the defeat in Battle of Badr, the Jews made a secret deal with the pagans of Makkah against Muslims.  When the Prophet (peace be upon him)m came to know about this conspiracy, the treaty between Muslims, Christians and Jews was cancelled. Abdullah ibn Ubaiyy, however, refused to break his allies with the Jews because they were financially stronger. He was adamant that he doesn’t know what will happen in the future. If tomorrow he is in need of the financially stronger party, the Jews won’t help him.

In this verse, Allah is warning the Muslims not to make tribal alliances with the Jews and the Christians. Tomorrow when they go for war, we will be required to join them due to our alliance and it could be that they are going at war against other Muslims. Would we support them? Similarly, since they defied the law of Allah by being their allies there’s a possibility that we begin doing things that are prohibited for us to do. However, this does not mean cutting off from your Jewish or Christian neighbor or marrying the chaste women of People of the Book. Situations where one has to compromise his religion is not allowed.

Following questions may arise in the minds of Muslims as regards their daily routine and contact with Jews and Christians, specially when living in the non Muslim countries:
  • Can we conduct business with them and shop from their stores? The Prophet (peace be u[on him) conducted trade with the disbelievers therefore it’s permissible. However, an important thing to consider is that we do not indulge in business of commodities and goods not allowed in Islam like liquor, pork.
  • Can we invite them over to our homes as guests? Our food is halal for them, their food is halal for them. As long as what you’re eating is permissible you can have them over as guests or visit their homes.
  • Can we attend their weddings? Since we are permitted to marry chaste women from the People of the Book, we can attend their weddings. Though we should be mindful of joining into activities now allowed in Islam.
And most importantly, if one sees the tenements of Islam and our faith are being compromised, one must abstain from such arrangements or activities. When you see your deen being compromised you leave. That’s a warning sign! Limit your interaction with them. Under no circumstances can faith be compromised.  Remember, it is not right that we should be in intimate association with those to whom religion is either a subject of mockery or at best is nothing but a plaything. They may be amused, or they may have other motives for encouraging you. But your association with them will sap the earnestness of your Faith, and make you cynical and insincere.
( 52 )   So you see those in whose hearts is disease hastening into [association with] them, saying, "We are afraid a misfortune may strike us." But perhaps Allah will bring conquest or a decision from Him, and they will become, over what they have been concealing within themselves, regretful.
The outcome of the conflict in Arabia between Islam and unbelief (kufr) had not crystallized. Although Islam had become a formidable force owing to the daring, courage and sacrifices of its followers, the forces opposed to it were also tremendously powerful. To an objective observer it must have seemed that either party had an equal chance of success, and so the hypocrites, apparently an integral part of the Muslim body politic, sought to maintain good relations with the Jews and the. Christians as well. They expected refuge and protection from the Jews in case Islam was defeated. Moreover, the Jews and Christians held the greatest economic power in Arabia insofar as the banking system and the greenest and most fertile regions of Arabia were in their possession. For these reasons the hypocrites were keen to maintain good relations with them: they thought that to regard the conflict between Islam and unbelief as crucially important, and to sever their relations with all those currently in conflict with Islam, would be too great a risk both politically and economically.

They were looking for a conclusive victory, or at least something not far short of it, to inspire confidence that the conflict would end in favour of Islam.
( 53 )   And those who believe will say, "Are these the ones who swore by Allah their strongest oaths that indeed they were with you?" Their deeds have become worthless, and they have become losers.
After their hypocrisy has been exposed and the reality behind their claims and oaths comes out in open, the believers would wonder if these were the people who used to assure them with sworn claims of friendship. These hypocrites will be ruined as everything they did just to pretend had gone to waste.

The Hypocrites, while matters were doubtful, pretended to be with Muslims, but were in league with their enemies. When matters came to a decision and Allah granted victory to Islam, their position was awkward. They were not only disowned by the Muslims, but the Muslims could well say in reproach to their enemies: "Are these the men who swore friendship for you? What was their friendship worth to you? Where are they now?"

Verses 54-56 Your protecting friends are Allah, His Rasool, and your fellow believers.

In the following verses, Allah states that whoever abandons supporting His religion and establishing His Law, then He will replace them with whomever is better, mightier and more righteous in Allah’s religion and Law. He says,
( 54 )   Believers! If any of you should ever turn away from your faith, remember that Allah will raise up a people whom He loves, and who love Him; a people humble towards the believers, and firm towards the unbelievers; who will strive hard in the way of Allah and will not fear the reproach of the reproacher. This is the favour of Allah which He grants to whom He wills. Allah is vast in resources, All-Knowing.
If any believer chooses to leave Islam it does not affect Allah. He is Independent of those who abandon Islam. And in their stead Allah will make another set of people rise, blessed with better virtues. Those people can be clearly marked out by their distinguishable qualities. As Muslims we should keep these qualities in our minds because this ayah tells us that people who have such quality and character are welcome and dear in the sight of Allah.

"Allah will love them and they will love Allah." How can one attain the love of Allah? Allah tells in Surah Ale-Imran Chapter 3 verse 31:
Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful."
To be 'humble towards believers' signifies that a person should never use his strength against the believers. His native intelligence, shrewdness, ability, influence, wealth, physical prowess should not be used for the purpose of either suppressing, persecuting or causing harm to the Muslims. Among themselves, the Muslims should always find him gentle, merciful, sympathetic and mild tempered.

To be 'firm towards unbelievers', on the contrary, means that by virtue of the intensity of his faith, the sincerity of his conviction, his strict adherence to his principles, his strength of character and his insight and perspicacity born of faith, a man should be firm as a rock in his dealings with the opponents of Islam, so that they find it impossible to dislodge him. There should be no doubt in their minds that the believer would rather lay down his life than compromise his position by yielding to external pressures.

In following the religion of God, in implementing His injunctions, in judging things to be either right or wrong according to the criteria of the faith, the believer will be afraid of nothing. He will be impervious to opposition, reproach, denunciation, name-calling and scorn. Even when public opinion happens to be hostile, and his efforts to follow Islam single him out for the scorn of the whole world, the man of faith will still follow the way which he recognizes in his heart to be true.

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ
( 55 )   Your ally is none but Allah and [therefore] His Messenger and those who have believed - those who establish prayer and give zakah, and they bow [in worship].
By saying your Protector is Allah; it removes those who don’t believe in Him. Meaning that those who do not believe in Him cannot be your protectors. Your allegiance is to Allah, His Messenger and the faithful believers.

Now, the terms wallatheena amanoo is too broad. It encompasses everyone therefore He further elucidates by adding “those who establish Salah and give Zakah and bow down”. The act of bowing down is part of the Salah ritual, but it also denotes humility. This means that these people are not arrogant rather they have a humble attitude.

Salah is one of the most important pillars of Islam for it includes worshiping Allah alone without any partners. It is the believers who establish the prayer and do not associate any partners with Allah. The believers pay Zakah which is the right of the creation and a type of help extended to the needy and the poor.

In ayah 56, Allah gives the good news that people mentioned in ayah 55 are the ones who will be victorious. He says,
( 56 )   And whoever is an ally of Allah and His Messenger and those who have believed - indeed, the party of Allah - they will be the predominant.
Those who obey the commands of Allah are the people of Allah. Given to them is the good news that they will be the ones to finally overcome. The events which unfolded later on confirmed the veracity of this statement when everyone saw that the Sahabahs, radhiAllahu anhum, overcame all powers which threatened them.

When internal rebellions challenged Abu Bakr Siddeeq, radhiAllahu anhu, Allah helped him prevail over all of them. When the towering powers of Ceaser and Cyrus marshaled their menacing might against Umar ibn al-Khattab, radhiAllahu anhu, Allah effaced them from the face of the earth.

Then as long as these injunctions were dutifully observed by the Khulafa and Muslims at large who came after them – by abstaining from establishing close bonds of friendship with non-Muslims – they had always remained winners in the struggle of life.

Here we come to the end of Part II of the exegesis of Surah Al Māʼidah. For Part III, wait for our next post.

You may now like to listen to Arabic recitation of Surah Al Māʼidah with English subtitles:

You may refer to our post "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, meaning and summary / exegesis of other chapters (Though not complete but building up from 30th Juzʼ / Part backwards for chapters in 30th Juzʼ / Part are shorter and easier to understand). 

Photo | References| 12 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 |
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. [2] 
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources:
In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites.

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