Monday 9 March 2020

Surah An Nisa: 4th Chapter of Quran (Exegesis Part-V)

Sürah An-Nisa' " ٱلنِّسَاء‎ " - The Women, is the fourth chapter of the Qur'an part of the Juz' 4-5 with 176 āyāt (verses) and 24 Ruku / sections. The title of the surah is mainly attributed to  numerous references to women throughout the chapter, including verses 4:34 and 4:127-130.

This Sürah closely connected chronologically with Sürah 3 Al i Imran  and the subject matter deals with social problems which Muslim community had to face immediately after Uhud.

The main object of this Sürah is to teach the Muslims the ways that unite a people and make them firm and strong. Introductions for the stability of family, which is the nucleus of community have been given. Then they have been urged to prepare themselves for defense. Side by side with these, they have been taught the importance of the propagation of Islam. Above all, the importance of the highest moral character in the scheme of consolidation of the Community has been impressed.

Owing to the length  of the Sürah and varied subjects discussed therein, the Sürah has been divided into six parts parts for better understanding, as already explained in the Overview.  We have already presented the first four parts. 

We now begin with the Part V ( verses 105-134).  The the Muslims have been enjoined to observe the highest standard of justice in order to make the Islamic Community firm and strong for defense. The Muslims are required to deal out strict justice even in case of the enemy, with whom they might be involved in war. They should also settle disputes between husband and wife with justice. In order to ensure this, they should keep their beliefs and deeds absolutely free from every kind of impurity and should become the standard bearers of justice. 

Let us now read the translation and exegesis / tafseer in English. For Arabic Text, please refer to the references given at the end and may also listen to its recitation in Arabic with English subtitles:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"

Ruku / Section 16 [Verses 104-112]
Verse 104: Before proceeding on to the next topic, the Muslims have been exhorted to persevere in their fight without showing any kind of weakness. 

وَلَا تَهِنُوا فِي ابْتِغَاءِ الْقَوْمِ ۖ إِن تَكُونُوا تَأْلَمُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَأْلَمُونَ كَمَا تَأْلَمُونَ ۖ وَتَرْجُونَ مِنَ اللَّـهِ مَا لَا يَرْجُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا 

This refers to those unbelievers who adamantly opposed the cause of Islam and the establishment of the Islamic order.

It is astonishing that men of faith should not be prepared to endure the same degree of hardship for the sake of the Truth as unbelievers do for the sake of falsehood. This is strange insofar as the latter merely seek the transient benefits of worldly life whereas the faithful seek to please, and secure the proximity of the Lord of the Universe and look forward to everlasting rewards.

Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Religion should be a source of strength and not of weakness in all our affairs. If we have to struggle hard and suffer hardships, those without faith have to do the same, with this difference, that the man of Faith is full of hope in Allah, whereas the man without Faith has nothing to sustain him.

Javed Ahmed Ghamidi's Explanation:
The actual word is: الۡقَوۡم. When it is used in this context, it refers to the enemy. Examples of such usage can be seen both in the Qur’an and in classical Arabic literature.

Hence Muslims must rest assured that the hardships they are inflicted with are for their own well-being and are a requisite of the knowledge and wisdom of God.

Verses 105-112 Establish justice based on Divine guidance and Warning against Slander and against falsely charging innocents:
اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَيۡكَ الۡكِتٰبَ بِالۡحَـقِّ لِتَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَ النَّاسِ بِمَاۤ اَرٰٮكَ اللّٰهُ​ ؕ وَلَا تَكُنۡ لِّـلۡخَآئِنِيۡنَ خَصِيۡمًا ۙ‏ 
(105 )   Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth so you may judge between the people by that which Allah has shown you. And do not be for the deceitful an advocate.
These and certain other verses which occur a little later on (see verses 113 ff.) deal with an important matter, related to an incident that took place around the time they were revealed. The incident involved a person called Tu'mah or Bashir ibn Ubayriq of the Banu Zafar tribe of the Ansar. This man stole an Ansari's coat of mail. While the investigation was in progress, he put the coat of mail in the house of a Jew. Its owner approached the Prophet (peace be on him) and expressed his suspicion about Tu'mah. But Tu'mah, his kinsmen and many of the Banu Zafar colluded to ascribe the guilt to the Jew. When the Jew concerned was asked about the matter he pleaded that he was not guilty. Tu'mah's supporters, on the other hand, waged a vigorous propaganda campaign to save Tu'mah's skin. They argued that the wicked Jew, who had denied the Truth and disbelieved in God and the Prophet (peace be on him), was absolutely untrustworthy, and his statement ought to be rejected outright. The Prophet (peace be on him) was about to decide the case against the Jew on formal grounds and to censure the plaintiff for slandering Banu Ubayriq, but before he could do so, the whole matter was laid bare by a revelation from God.

It is obvious that the Prophet (peace be on him) would have committed no sin if he had given judgement on the evidence before him. Judges are quite often faced with such situations. False evidence is given in order to obtain wrong verdicts. The time when this case came up for decision was a time of severe conflict between Islam and unbelief. Had the Prophet (peace be on him) issued a wrong judgement on the basis of the evidence before him, it would have provided the opponents of Islam with an effective weapon against the Prophet (peace be on him) as well as against the entire Islamic community, and even Islam itself. They could have spread the word that the Prophet (peace be on him) and his followers were not concerned about right and justice: it would have been claimed that they were guilty of the same prejudice and chauvinism against which they had themselves been preaching. It was specifically to prevent this situation that God intervened in this particular case.

In this and the following verse, the Muslims were strongly censured for supporting criminals for no other reason than either family or tribal solidarity and were told that they should not allow prejudice to interfere with the principle of equal justice for all. Man's instinctive honesty revolts against the idea of supporting one's own kin even when they are wrong, and denying others their legitimate rights.

Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
The Commentators explain this passage with reference to the case of Taima ibn Ubairaq, who was nominally a Muslim but really a Hypocrite, and given to all sorts of wicked deeds. He was suspected of having stolen a set of armour, and when the trial was hot, he planted the stolen property into the house of a Jew, where it was found. The Jew denied the charge and accused Taima, but the sympathies of the Muslim community were with Taima on account of his nominal profession of Islam. The case was brought to the Prophet, who acquitted the Jew according to the strict principle of justice, as "guided by Allah." Attempts were made to prejudice him and deceive him into using his authority to favour Taima. When Taima realized that his punishment was imminent he fled and turned apostate. The general lesson is that the righteous man is faced with all sorts of subtle wiles; the wicked will try to appeal to his highest sympathies and most honourable motives to deceive him and use him as an instrument for defeating justice. He should be careful and cautious, and seek the help of Allah for protection against deception and for firmness in dealing the strictest justice without fear or favour. To do otherwise is to betray a sacred trust; the trustee must defeat all attempts made to mislead him.

وَّاسۡتَغۡفِرِ اللّٰهَ​ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِيۡمًا​ ۚ‏  
( 106 )   And seek forgiveness of Allah. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.
وَلَا تُجَادِلۡ عَنِ الَّذِيۡنَ يَخۡتَانُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَهُمۡ​ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَنۡ كَانَ خَوَّانًا اَثِيۡمًا ۙ​ ۚ‏  
( 107 )   And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.
Whoever commits a breach of trust with others in fact commits a breach of trust with his own self first. For the powers of his head and heart have been placed at his disposal as a trust, and by misusing them he is forcing those powers to support him in acts which involve a breach of trust. In doing so the person concerned suppresses his conscience, which God has placed as a sentinel over his moral conduct, with the result that it is rendered incapable of preventing him from acts of wrong and iniquity. It is only after a man has already carried out this cruel suppression of conscience within himself that he is able to commit acts of sin and iniquity outwardly.

يَّسۡتَخۡفُوۡنَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يَسۡتَخۡفُوۡنَ مِنَ اللّٰهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمۡ اِذۡ يُبَيِّتُوۡنَ مَا لَا يَرۡضٰى مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ​ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُوۡنَ مُحِيۡطًا‏ 
( 108 )   They conceal [their evil intentions and deeds] from the people, but they cannot conceal [them] from Allah, and He is with them [in His knowledge] when they spend the night in such as He does not accept of speech. And ever is Allah, of what they do, encompassing.
هٰۤاَنۡتُمۡ هٰٓؤُلَۤاءِ جَادَلۡـتُمۡ عَنۡهُمۡ فِى الۡحَيٰوةِ الدُّنۡيَا فَمَنۡ يُّجَادِلُ اللّٰهَ عَنۡهُمۡ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيٰمَةِ اَمۡ مَّنۡ يَّكُوۡنُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَكِيۡلًا‏   
( 109 )   Here you are - those who argue on their behalf in [this] worldly life - but who will argue with Allah for them on the Day of Resurrection, or who will [then] be their representative?
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi's Explanation:
The actual word is: وَکِیۡل. When it is used with the preposition عَلٰی then in the Arabic language just as it means “a guardian and guarantor,” it also means “someone who is accountable and who takes responsibility.” The verse warns those who supported the Hypocrites because of their personal relationship with them. They would also try to find excuses to exonerate these Hypocrites from their blatant sins. Till verse 115, all the discourse answers them.

Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has commented on this. He writes:
When I read these verses, my mind repeatedly makes me conclude that this is an answer to people who, while supporting the Hypocrites, would argue and debate with the Prophet (sws) and the faithful believers. Obviously, when news of the secret gatherings and conspiracies of the Hypocrites would reach the Prophet (sws) and his companions, they would be taken to task in some form or the other. At those times, the supporters of the Hypocrites mentioned earlier would try to defend them by saying that they were very sincere people and were well-wishers of the Muslims; the conversations and discussions in their gatherings were to the benefit and well-being of Islam and the Muslims; and if in this regard, they were asked about something that they were unable to justify, they would ascribe it to some decent person who could not even have imagined such a thing. To counter the advocacy of these people, the Qur’an has very subtly exposed these connivances and done so in such a beautiful manner that everything has come to the fore and the addressees are not in a position to deny it. 
(Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 2, 383)

وَ مَنۡ يَّعۡمَلۡ سُوۡٓءًا اَوۡ يَظۡلِمۡ نَفۡسَهٗ ثُمَّ يَسۡتَغۡفِرِ اللّٰهَ يَجِدِ اللّٰهَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِيۡمًا‏  
( 110 )   And whoever does a wrong or wrongs himself but then seeks forgiveness of Allah will find Allah Forgiving and Merciful.
The way to escape God’s punishment is not that other people should start backing and advocating the criminals; the right way in this regard is that the criminal himself should turn to God and confess his sin and seek His pardon.

وَمَنۡ يَّكۡسِبۡ اِثۡمًا فَاِنَّمَا يَكۡسِبُهٗ عَلٰى نَفۡسِهٖ​ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ عَلِيۡمًا حَكِيۡمًا‏  
( 111 )   And whoever commits a sin only earns it against himself. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.
Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Kasaba = to earn, to gain, to work for something valuable, to lay up a provision for the future life. We do a day's labour to earn our livelihood: so in a spiritual sense, whatever good or evil we do in this life, earns us good or evil in the life to come. In verses 110-112 three cases are considered: (1) if we do ill and repent, Allah will forgive; (2) if we do ill and do not repent: thinking that we can hide it, we are wrong; nothing is hidden from Allah, and we shall suffer the full consequences in the life to come, for we can never evade our personal responsibility: (3) if we do ill, great or small, and impute it to another, our original responsibility for the ill remains, but we add to it something else; for we tie round our necks the guilt of falsehood, which converts even our minor fault into a great sin, and in any case brands us even in this life with shame and ignominy.

وَمَنۡ يَّكۡسِبۡ خَطِيۡٓـئَةً اَوۡ اِثۡمًا ثُمَّ يَرۡمِ بِهٖ بَرِيۡٓـئًـا فَقَدِ احۡتَمَلَ بُهۡتَانًا وَّاِثۡمًا مُّبِيۡنًا 
( 112 )   But whoever earns an offense or a sin and then blames it on an innocent [person] has taken upon himself a slander and manifest sin.
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi's Explanation:
Here another mischief of the Hypocrites is exposed. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
… When these people were called to account for some mistake or act of injustice, then instead of confessing to it, they would blame some innocent person for the offence. The verse says that this attitude of absolving one self from God is also wrong. Through this calumny or lie, they can deceive the world but they cannot deceive God. In His eyes, such people will not only bear the burden of their own sin but also the additional burden of the sin of slander and falsehood. 
(Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 2, 380)

Ruku / Section 17 [Verses 113-115]
Verses 113-115 Allah's special favors to the Prophet and Prohibition of secret counsel and its limited exception:

وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰهِ عَلَيۡكَ وَرَحۡمَتُهٗ لَهَمَّتۡ طَّآئِفَةٌ مِّنۡهُمۡ اَنۡ يُّضِلُّوۡكَ ؕ وَمَا يُضِلُّوۡنَ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡفُسَهُمۡ​ وَمَا يَضُرُّوۡنَكَ مِنۡ شَىۡءٍ ​ؕ وَاَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ عَلَيۡكَ الۡكِتٰبَ وَالۡحِكۡمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمۡ تَكُنۡ تَعۡلَمُ​ؕ وَكَانَ فَضۡلُ اللّٰهِ عَلَيۡكَ عَظِيۡمًا‏ 
( 113 )   And if it was not for the favor of Allah upon you, [O Muhammad], and His mercy, a group of them would have determined to mislead you. But they do not mislead except themselves, and they will not harm you at all. And Allah has revealed to you the Book and wisdom and has taught you that which you did not know. And ever has the favor of Allah upon you been great.
Even if some people succeeded in their design to obtain from the Prophet (peace be on him) a wrong judgement in their favour by presenting a false account of events, the real loss would have been theirs rather than the Prophet's (peace be on him). For the real criminals in the sight of God are the perpetrators of that fraud and not the Prophet (peace be on him) who might in good faith have delivered a verdict that actually did not conform to the facts. Whoever obtains a judgement in his favour by tricking the courts deludes himself into believing that by such tricks he can bring right to his side; right remains with its true claimant regardless of judgments obtained by fraud and deception. (See also Towards Understanding the Qur'an, vol. I, (Surah 2, n. 197.)

لَا خَيۡرَ فِىۡ كَثِيۡرٍ مِّنۡ نَّجۡوٰٮهُمۡ اِلَّا مَنۡ اَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ اَوۡ مَعۡرُوۡفٍ اَوۡ اِصۡلَاحٍۢ بَيۡنَ النَّاسِ​ ؕ وَمَن يَّفۡعَلۡ ذٰ لِكَ ابۡتِغَآءَ مَرۡضَاتِ اللّٰهِ فَسَوۡفَ نُـؤۡتِيۡهِ اَجۡرًا عَظِيۡمًا‏ 
( 114 )   No good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who enjoin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. And whoever does that seeking means to the approval of Allah - then We are going to give him a great reward.
 Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Usually secrecy is for evil ends, or from questionable motives, or because the person seeking secrecy is ashamed of himself and knows that if his acts or motives became known, he would make himself odious. Islam therefore disapproves of secrecy and loves and enjoins openness in all consultations and doings. But there are three things in which secrecy is permissible, and indeed laudable, provided the motive be purely unselfish, to earn "the good pleasure of Allah": (1) if you are doing a deed of charity or beneficence, whether in giving material things or in helping in moral, intellectual, or spiritual matters; here publicity may not be agreeable to the recipient of your beneficence, and you have to think of his feelings; (2) where an unpleasant act of justice or correction has to be done; this should be done, but there is no virtue in publishing it abroad and causing humiliation to some parties or adding to their humiliation by publicity; (3) where there is a delicate question of conciliating parties to a quarrel; they may be very touchy about publicity but quite amenable to the influence of a man acting in private.

وَمَنۡ يُّشَاقِقِ الرَّسُوۡلَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَـهُ الۡهُدٰى وَ يَـتَّبِعۡ غَيۡرَ سَبِيۡلِ الۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ نُوَلِّهٖ مَا تَوَلّٰى وَنُصۡلِهٖ جَهَـنَّمَ​ؕ وَسَآءَتۡ مَصِيۡرًا
( 115 )   And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers - We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination.
When, after revelation from God, the Prophet (peace be on him) delivered his verdict in favour of the innocent Jew rather than the dishonest Muslim, the latter was so seized by un-Islamic, egotistic and chauvinistic considerations that he left Medina, went straight to Makkah to join the ranks of the enemies of Islam and of the Prophet (peace be on him), and undertook open opposition. The verse alludes to that incident.

Ruku / Section 18 [Verses 116-126]
Verses 116-121 Shirk is and unforgivable sin and Pledge and Promises of Shaitan:

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا يَغۡفِرُ اَنۡ يُّشۡرَكَ بِهٖ وَيَغۡفِرُ مَا دُوۡنَ ذٰ لِكَ لِمَنۡ يَّشَآءُ​ ؕ وَمَنۡ يُّشۡرِكۡ بِاللّٰهِ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلٰلًاۢ بَعِيۡدًا‏
( 116 )   Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly gone far astray.
In this and the following verses we are asked to consider coolly, the end result of obsession with rage and anger, and what kind of people one chooses to identify with in place of the righteous people from whom one foolishly dissociates oneself.
اِنۡ يَّدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِهٖۤ اِلَّاۤ اِنٰـثًـا​ ۚ وَاِنۡ يَّدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَّا شَيۡـطٰنًا مَّرِيۡدًا ۙ‏  
( 117 )   They call upon instead of Him none but female [deities], and they [actually] call upon none but a rebellious Satan.
No one sets up Satan as his 'god' in the sense that he makes him the object of his ritual worship and declares him to be God in so many words. The way to make Satan one's god is to entrust one's reins to him and let oneself be drawn helplessly in whichever direction he wants; the relationship between the two is, then, that of worshiper and worshiped. This shows that either absolute, unreserved obedience to or blind following of anybody is tantamount to 'worshiping' him, so that whoever indulges in this kind of absolute obedience is guilty of worshiping a 'god' other than the One True God.

Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
The unity, power, and goodness of Allah are so manifest in nature and in the human mind when it is in accord with the universal spirit, that only the most abject perversion can account for the sin of religious treason. That sin arises from perverted ideas of sex or perverted ideas of self. The perversion of sex is to suppose that sex rules in religious matters. From it arise such horrible creations of the imagination as Kali, the blood-thirsty goddess of India, or Hecate, the goddess of revenge and hate in Greek mythology. Even in beautiful forms like Saraswati (the goddess of learning) or Minerva (the virgin goddess of sport and arts), to say nothing of Venus (the goddess of carnal pleasures), the emphasis laid on sex destroys a right view of religious nature. Perverted ideas of self are typified in the story of Satan, who was so puffed up with arrogance that he disobeyed Allah, and Allah cursed him. Both these perversions, if allowed lodgment, completely ruin our religious nature and deface Allah's handiwork. Hence it is not merely an outer sin but one that corrupts us through and through.

لَّـعَنَهُ اللّٰهُ​ ۘ وَقَالَ لَاَ تَّخِذَنَّ مِنۡ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيۡبًا مَّفۡرُوۡضًا ۙ‏ 
( 118 )   Whom Allah has cursed. For he had said, "I will surely take from among Your servants a specific portion.
This shows that Satan is determined to lay his claim to a portion of men's time, to their effort and labour, to their energies and capacities, to their material belongings, and to their offspring, and would somehow trick them into devoting a sizable portion of all these in his cause.

وَّلَاُضِلَّـنَّهُمۡ وَلَاُمَنِّيَنَّهُمۡ وَلَاٰمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُبَـتِّكُنَّ اٰذَانَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ وَلَاٰمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ اللّٰهِ​ؕ وَمَنۡ يَّتَّخِذِ الشَّيۡطٰنَ وَلِيًّا مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانًا مُّبِيۡنًا ؕ‏ 
( 119 )   And I will mislead them, and I will arouse in them [sinful] desires, and I will command them so they will slit the ears of cattle, and I will command them so they will change the creation of Allah." And whoever takes Satan as an ally instead of Allah has certainly sustained a clear loss.
The reference here is to a superstitious Arabian custom. It was customary among the Arabs that after a camel had given birth to five or ten young to slit her ears and let her go in the name of their deity; they considered it forbidden to put her to any work. Likewise, the male camel that had caused the birth of ten camels was consecrated to some deity. The slitting of ears symbolized this consecration.

To alter God's creation in some respect does not mean changing its original form. If that was meant, human civilization would have to be considered Satanic in its entirety. For civilization consists essentially of man's putting to use the resources endowed by God. Hence the alteration of God's creation, which is characterized as Satanic, consists in using a thing not for the purpose for which it was created by God. In other words, all acts performed in violation either of one's true nature or of the intrinsic nature of other things are the result of the misleading promptings of Satan. These include, for instance, sodomy, birth control, monasticism, celibacy, sterilization of either men or women, turning males into eunuchs, diverting females from the functions entrusted to them by nature and driving them to perform the functions for which men were created. These and numerous similar measures are enacted by Satan's disciples in this world, which amounts on their part, to saying that the laws of the Creator were faulty and that they would like to 'reform' them.

يَعِدُهُمۡ وَيُمَنِّيۡهِمۡ​ ؕ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيۡـطٰنُ اِلَّا غُرُوۡرًا‏ 
( 120 )   Satan promises them and arouses desire in them. But Satan does not promise them except delusion.
Satanic operations are based on making attractive promises and raising high hopes. Whenever Satan wants to mislead men, whether individually or collectively, he tries to inspire them with Utopian expectations. In some he inspires expectations of ecstatic pleasure and outstanding success in their individual lives. He inspires others with prospects for achieving national glory. To still others he promises the well-being of mankind. He makes people feel confident that they can arrive at the ultimate truth without the aid of revealed knowledge. He deludes others into believing that God neither exists nor that there is any Life-after-Death. He comforts others with the belief that even if there is an After-life, they will be able to escape punishment through the intercession of certain persons. In short, Satan extends to different groups of people different promises and expectations with a view to seducing them.

اُولٰٓـئِكَ مَاۡوٰٮهُمۡ جَهَـنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُوۡنَ عَنۡهَا مَحِيۡصًا‏
( 121 )   The refuge of those will be Hell, and they will not find from it an escape.
Verses 122-124 Promise of Allah-who can be truer than Allah in promise?:

وَالَّذِيۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَعَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِىۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِهَا الۡاَنۡهٰرُ خٰلِدِيۡنَ فِيۡهَاۤ اَبَدًا​ ؕ وَعۡدَ اللّٰهِ حَقًّا​ؕ وَمَنۡ اَصۡدَقُ مِنَ اللّٰهِ قِيۡلً
( 122 )   But the ones who believe and do righteous deeds - We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. [It is] the promise of Allah, [which is] truth, and who is more truthful than Allah in statement.
 لَـيۡسَ بِاَمَانِيِّكُمۡ وَلَاۤ اَمَانِىِّ اَهۡلِ الۡـكِتٰبِ​ؕ مَنۡ يَّعۡمَلۡ سُوۡٓءًا يُّجۡزَ بِهٖۙ وَ لَا يَجِدۡ لَهٗ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ وَلِيًّا وَّلَا نَصِيۡرًا‏ 
( 123 )   Paradise is not [obtained] by your wishful thinking nor by that of the People of the Scripture. Whoever does a wrong will be recompensed for it, and he will not find besides Allah a protector or a helper.
وَمَنۡ يَّعۡمَلۡ مِنَ الصّٰلِحٰتِ مِنۡ ذَكَرٍ اَوۡ اُنۡثٰى وَهُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَاُولٰٓـئِكَ يَدۡخُلُوۡنَ الۡجَـنَّةَ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُوۡنَ نَقِيۡرًا‏  
( 124 )   And whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer - those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged, [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.
Verses 125-126 No one is better than a Muslim:

وَمَنۡ اَحۡسَنُ دِيۡنًا مِّمَّنۡ اَسۡلَمَ وَجۡهَهٗ لِلّٰهِ وَهُوَ مُحۡسِنٌ وَّاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ اِبۡرٰهِيۡمَ حَنِيۡفًا​ ؕ وَاتَّخَذَ اللّٰهُ اِبۡرٰهِيۡمَ خَلِيۡلًا‏ 
( 125 )   And who is better in religion than one who submits himself to Allah while being a doer of good and follows the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth? And Allah took Abraham as an intimate friend.
Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Abraham is distinguished in Muslim theology with the title of "Friend of Allah". This does not of course mean that he was anything more than a mortal. But his faith was pure and true, and his conduct was firm and righteous in all circumstances. He was the fountainhead of the present monotheistic tradition, the Patriarch of the prophetic line, and is revered alike by Jews, Christians and Muslims.

Javed ahmed Ghamidi's Explanation:
Ie., this is the real religion. Abraham (sws) was its follower. If God chose him to be His friend, it was because he had totally devoted himself to Him while cutting himself off from everything. Muslims are following this supreme leader of monotheism. Contrary to them, the Idolaters have left the way of Abraham (sws) and have chosen to follow Satan, the supreme leader of polytheism.

وَلِلّٰهِ مَا فِى السَّمٰوٰتِ وَمَا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ​ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ مُّحِيۡـطًا 
( 126 )   And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And ever is Allah, of all things, encompassing.
If man will neither submit to God nor stop acting in defiance of Him, he should bear in mind that he can never escape from God's grip,for His power encompasses him completely.

Ruku / Section 19 [Verses 127-134]

Verses 127-130 Establishment of justice for women:

وَيَسۡتَفۡتُوۡنَكَ فِى النِّسَآءِ ​ؕ قُلِ اللّٰهُ يُفۡتِيۡكُمۡ فِيۡهِنَّ ۙ وَمَا يُتۡلٰى عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِى الۡكِتٰبِ فِىۡ يَتٰمَى النِّسَآءِ الّٰتِىۡ لَا تُؤۡتُوۡنَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرۡغَبُوۡنَ اَنۡ تَـنۡكِحُوۡهُنَّ وَالۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِيۡنَ مِنَ الۡوِلۡدَانِ ۙ وَاَنۡ تَقُوۡمُوۡا لِلۡيَتٰمٰى بِالۡقِسۡطِ​ ؕ وَمَا تَفۡعَلُوۡا مِنۡ خَيۡرٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ بِهٖ عَلِيۡمًا‏ 
( 127 )   And they request from you, [O Muhammad], a [legal] ruling concerning women. Say, "Allah gives you a ruling about them and [about] what has been recited to you in the Book concerning the orphan girls to whom you do not give what is decreed for them - and [yet] you desire to marry them - and concerning the oppressed among children and that you maintain for orphans [their rights] in justice." And whatever you do of good - indeed, Allah is ever Knowing of it.
The actual query about women is not spelled out directly. The judgement pronounced a little later on in response to that query, however, makes it abundantly clear what the query was.

This is not a response to the query itself. Before attending to this, God once again emphasizes that people should implement His directives regarding orphans in general, and orphan girls in particular, as mentioned at the beginning of this surah see (verses 2 ff). above). This shows the importance of the rights of orphans in the sight of God. The protection of their rights, as we have pointed out, had already been stressed forcefully (see beginning of the surah, (verses 1-14). But that was not deemed sufficient. Hence, when problems of family life came up for discussion, the question of the well-being of orphans automatically arose even before answering the questions people raised.

This alludes to (verse 3 of this surah): 'And if you fear that you might not treat the orphans justly, then marry the women that seem good to you. '

The words of the text ( ) may be interpreted as: 'Whom you wish to marry (out of greed)' and also as 'Whom you do not wish to marry.' In explanation of this verse 'A'ishah states that, in those days, guardians of orphan girls who had any significant inheritance from their parents used to perpetrate many wrongs on their wards. If the girl was both rich and good looking, the guardian desired to marry her and exploit both her attractiveness and wealth without either having to make the bridal-due (mahr) or even having to undertake her maintenance. If the girl was ugly, the guardian would neither marry her nor allow her to get married, for she might thus get a husband who would support her claim to her legitimate rights. (See the commentary of Ibn Kathir on this verse. The tradition is quoted by Ibn Kathir from Bukhari. See also( n. 4 )above -Ed.)

The reference here is to the injunctions regarding the protection of the rights of orphans at the beginning of the surah see (verses 1 ff . and 11) ff. above).

Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Again and again is it impressed on the community of Islam to be just in their dealings with women, orphans, children, and all whose weakness requires special consideration. The law about widows and orphans, inheritance, dower, and marriage had already been declared in iv. 2-35 and further instructions are now given on a further reference. It was not right that anyone should take advantage of their helpless position to deprive them of dower or of their portion in inheritance.

Cf. iv. 75. Both widows and orphans are to be helped because they are ordinarily weak, ill-treated, and oppressed. In communities which base their civil rights on brute strength, the weaker go to the wall, and public opinion expects nothing else. In Nietzsche's philosophy of the Superman that doctrine is stressed strongly, and some of the militarist nations in our own time seem inclined to support this reversion to our primitive instincts. Even in modern democracies of the saner sort, we are often told that it is the fate of minorities to suffer; strength of numbers here becomes the passport to power and privilege. Islam, while upholding sane manly views in general, enjoins the most solicitous care for the weak and oppressed in every way-in rights of property, in social rights, and in the right to opportunities of development. Spiritual strength or weakness does not necessarily go with physical or numerical strength.

Javed Ahmed Ghamidi's Explanation:
The surah ends here as regards its subject. The succeeding verses form an annexure in which God has answered questions which arose about the directives mentioned in this surah while it was being read. The first question has been answered till verse 134. This was posed by the Muslims who till then were slightly weak in fulfilling the responsibilities of faith and morality. The second question was raised by the Hypocrites. It is answered till verse 152. The third question is in the form of a demand and is posed by the People of the Book. The Qur’an has answered it till verse 175. Verse 176 is the answer to the fourth and last question. It relates to those directives of inheritance which were given at the beginning of this surah.

The nature of this verdict becomes evident from its answer given later. It is a very common style of the Qur’an that the questions are cited very briefly. A little deliberation will show that this style is also a requisite of eloquence. This is because if the question is evident from the answer, then citing it will only lengthen the discourse.

The actual words are: لَا تُؤۡتُوۡنَہُنَّ مَا کُتِبَ لَہُنَّ (you do not give to them what has been prescribed for them). This refers to the conditions of dower and justice which have been regarded as essential in verses 3-4 of this surah in case one wished to marry the mothers of the orphans.

The actual words are: وَ مَا یُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ. In my opinion, they are coordinated to the genitive pronoun in فِیۡہِنَّ, and the word الۡکِتٰب refers to the Qur’an.

This is the verdict of God delivered in response to the question. For it, the Qur’anic words used are: وَ اَنۡ تَقُوۡمُوۡا لِلۡیَتٰمٰی بِالۡقِسۡطِ. The clause to which these words are coordinated to is suppressed. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi has explained it. He writes:
… There is nothing in the discourse which can form the co-ordinate clause (ma‘tuf ‘alayh) of وَ اَنۡ تَقُوۡمُوۡا لِلۡیَتٰمٰی بِالۡقِسۡطِ. Hence it must necessarily be deemed as suppressed, and this suppression shall be determined in the light of the context. Thus before the words وَ اَنۡ تَقُوۡمُوۡا لِلۡیَتٰمٰی بِالۡقِسۡطِ, the suppression would be to the effect: give dowers to these women; deal with them justly. Only then will the clause وَ اَنۡ تَقُوۡمُوۡا لِلۡیَتٰمٰی بِالۡقِسۡطِ become appropriate to be coordinated to these suppressed words. The complete meaning would be: deal justly with these women and adhere to justice regarding the orphans. In other words, it has been elucidated in the verdict that just as the conditions of giving dower and dealing justly exist with regard to the general category of women, they also exist with regard to the mother of the orphans, and the directive of dealing justly with women in the verse وَاِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ اَلَّا تُقۡسِطُوۡا and giving dower to women in the verse وَ اٰتُوا النِّسَآءَ صَدُقٰتِہِنَّ relate to the mother of the orphans whom Muslims wanted to marry but were not ready to either deal justly with them or to give them their dowers. In this way, this verse has explained the concise wording of verses 3-4 of this surah and by this verdict emphasized further the directives enshrined in them.
(Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 2, 397)

وَاِنِ امۡرَاَةٌ خَافَتۡ مِنۡۢ بَعۡلِهَا نُشُوۡزًا اَوۡ اِعۡرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡهِمَاۤ اَنۡ يُّصۡلِحَا بَيۡنَهُمَا صُلۡحًا​ ؕ وَالصُّلۡحُ خَيۡرٌ​ ؕ وَاُحۡضِرَتِ الۡاَنۡفُسُ الشُّحَّ​ ؕ وَاِنۡ تُحۡسِنُوۡا وَتَتَّقُوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِيۡرًا‏ 
( 128 )   And if a woman fears from her husband contempt or evasion, there is no sin upon them if they make terms of settlement between them - and settlement is best. And present in [human] souls is stinginess. But if you do good and fear Allah - then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.
 The actual response to the query begins here. In order to appreciate the response fully one would do well to consider the query itself. In the days of Ignorance a man was free to marry an unlimited number of women, who had virtually no rights. When the preliminary verses of the present surah were revealed (see especially( verse 3) this freedom was circumscribed

in two ways. First, the maximum number of wives was fixed at four. Second, justice (that is, equal treatment of wives) was laid down as a necessary condition for marrying more than one. This gives rise to the question whether a person is obligated by Islam to feel equally towards each of his wives, to love each to an equal degree, and treat them equally even in respect of sexual relationship. Such questions are especially relevant with regard to a husband one of whose wives might be, say, afflicted with either sterility, permanent sickness or who is incapable of sexual intercourse. Does justice demand that if he fails to live up to the standards of equality mentioned above that he should renounce his first wife in order to marry the second? Moreover, where the first wife is disinclined to agree to annulment of the marriage, is it appropriate for the spouses to make a voluntary accord between themselves, according to which the wife, towards whom the husband feels relatively less attracted, voluntarily surrenders some of her rights, prevailing upon her husband not to repudiate the marriage? Would such an act be against the dictates of justice? It is to questions such as these that these verses are addressed.

It is better for the spouses to come to a mutual understanding so that the wife may remain with the same man with whom she has already spent part of her life.

The 'selfishness' on the part of the wife is that even though she is conscious of the causes which have contributed to her husband's aversion towards her, she nevertheless expects from him the treatment that a husband accords to the wife that he loves. The 'selfishness' of the husband, on the other hand, lies in suppressing her unduly and curtailing her rights to an intolerable extent, merely because she is keen to continue to live with him even though she has lost her attraction for him.

Here, too, God urges the male, as He usually does in such matters, to be magnanimous. God urges a man to treat his wife, who has probably spent a considerable number of years with him as his companion, with kindliness and grace in spite of the aversion that he has come to feel for her. He also urges man to love God, for if He were to deprive him of His loving care and blessing in order to punish him for his shortcomings, what place would he have under the sun?

Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
To protect the woman's economic interests, various rules are prescribed for dower in marriage. But the sanctity of marriage itself is greater than any economic interests. Divorce is, of all things permitted, most hateful to Allah. Therefore if a breach between husband and wife can be prevented by some economic consideration, it is better to make that concession than to imperil the future of the wife, the children, and probably the husband also. Such concessions are permissible, in view of the love of wealth ingrained in unregenerate man, but a recommendation is made that we should practise self-restraint, and do what we can to come to an amicable settlement without any economic sacrifice on the part of the woman.

Javed Ahmed Ghamidi's Explanation:
The actual word is: نُشُوۡز. If it emanates from the husband, then it means that he refuses to deal with his wife in spite of regarding her to be his wife.

Here women are counselled that if they fear that husbands may show indifference to them or even think of parting ways with them because of their insistence to be treated equally, it is alright if a husband and wife settle for a compromise.Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
… This means that a wife may show lenience to her husband in her demand for justice as well as payment of dower and maintenance to her in order to dispense with the imminent fear of separation. The verse goes on to say that in compromises and settlements rest the welfare of all because it is in the interest of both husband and wife that this relationship once established should continue forever, even if a lot of sacrifice has to be made to keep it intact. Continuing with words of counsel, the verse says that greed is an evil found in human beings that affects mutual relationships; the remedy for this malady is that either both should get ready to make some sacrifice or if one of them is ill enough by not being willing to do so, the other should take the initiative. So if the wife has to make some sacrifice to keep the family unit intact, it is better that she does so. In the end, the words: “but if you do good and practice self-restraint” of the verse urge the husband to adopt the way of sacrifice and selflessness and it is only befitting that he show magnanimity and piety in this regard. He should live up to his traditions of grit and character and instead of being a “receiver” from the woman, he should let her be the “receiver.” The Almighty has knowledge of every deed a person does and He will greatly reward pious deeds. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 2, 399)
The actual words are: وَ اُحۡضِرَتِ الۡاَنۡفُسُ الشُّحَّ. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
The word شُّحّ means both “stinginess” and “greed”. The first of these meanings implies that a person is miserly in fulfilling the rights of others. This trait is condemnable in all circumstances. However, greed can relate to a desire for a noble thing as well as for an evil one; it can be within bounds and it can also exceed bounds. Hence, the fact that whether it is good or evil is an additional thing. As per its positive aspect, it does occupy a status in human nature; however, most people are so overwhelmed by it that it becomes a malady. The words اُحۡضِرَتِ الۡاَنۡفُسُ الشُّحَّ refer to this very aspect of greed. 
(Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 2, 398)

وَلَنۡ تَسۡتَطِيۡعُوۡۤا اَنۡ تَعۡدِلُوۡا بَيۡنَ النِّسَآءِ وَلَوۡ حَرَصۡتُمۡ​فَلَا تَمِيۡلُوۡا كُلَّ الۡمَيۡلِ فَتَذَرُوۡهَا كَالۡمُعَلَّقَةِ​ ؕ وَاِنۡ تُصۡلِحُوۡا وَتَتَّقُوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِيۡمًا‏ 
( 129 )   And you will never be able to be equal [in feeling] between wives, even if you should strive [to do so]. So do not incline completely [toward one] and leave another hanging. And if you amend [your affairs] and fear Allah - then indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.
This means that it is not possible for a man to accord complete equality of treatment to two or more wives under all circumstances and in all respects. It is possible that one is ugly, the other beautiful; one is old, the other young; one is permanently sick, the other healthy; one is irritable, the other good-tempered. These and other differences are likely to make a person less attracted to one and more to the other. In such circumstances, the Law does not demand that one should necessarily maintain absolute equality between the wives in respect of love, emotional attachment and sexual relationship. What it does demand is that if a husband does not repudiate the marriage despite aversion for his wife, either because of his own desire or out of consideration for the desire of his wife, he should at least maintain a good relationship short of which his wife begins to feel as if she is without a husband. In such circumstances, while it is natural that a person should prefer one wife to the other, this should not go to the extent that the woman remains, as it were, in a state of suspension, as if she were without a husband at all.

Some people point out that in this verse the Qur'an in one breath stipulates justice as the necessary condition for plurality of wives and in the other breath declares it to be impossible. On this ground they conclude that the Qur'an has itself revoked the permission to marry more than one wife. There is, however, absolutely no justification for such an inference. Such an inference would have been justified had the Qur'an merely said that 'You will not be able to treat your wives with (absolute) justice.' But this statement has been followed by the directive: ' ... do not allow yourselves to incline wholly to one, leaving the other in suspense.' This leaves no grounds at all for the blind followers of Christian Europe to force an interpretation of their liking on the verse.

If a man does not deliberately inflict any wrong and tries earnestly to be just in his dealings God will pardon whatever minor shortcomings take place.

Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
In this material world there are two principle causes of division between man and wife, money and "the other woman" or "the other man". Money was dealt with in the last verse. Here is the case of "the other woman". Legally more than one wife (up to four) are permissible on the condition that the man can be fair and just to all.

Javed Ahmed Ghamidi's Explanation:
It is evident from the above quoted verses that the requirement of justice between wives does not mean justice between them regarding the husband’s inner inclination or external behaviour. It is humanly impossible to be just in this matter because one has no power over one’s heart in such affairs. Therefore, in this regard, the Qur’an requires of a husband to not completely lean towards one of the wives and show indifference to the other, as if she had no husband. Consequently, he is asked to show balance in his behaviour towards them and in fulfilling their rights. In case of any fault or blemish in this matter, he should at once try to reform the state of affairs by making amends and should keep fearing the Almighty. If in spite of the effort something remains amiss, hopefully the Almighty will have mercy on him: God’s mercy is all-embracing.

The implication is that one should try everything to save the family from dismemberment. This is what God wants. However, if owing to compelling circumstances, separation does take place, one should hope for the best from the Almighty. It is He who provides sustenance to His creatures and assists them in hardships. He would fully help both the husband and the wife and fulfill their needs through His grace. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:
… The implication is that efforts that reflect selflessness and sacrifice are required from both the husband and wife in order to keep this relationship intact; however, this reconciliation must be done with honour and integrity: just as it is not permissible for either the husband or wife to show vanity in this regard, it is also not permissible to show accommodation beyond a certain point. Although the words used are general, it is evident from the context that the wife is encouraged to adjust and adapt to the situation as much as is possible and also show selflessness to achieve this end. However, she should rest assured that if in spite of her efforts the family does not remain intact, the Almighty is the one who provides and sustains all. He will completely fulfill her needs from His treasures. 
(Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 2, 400)

 وَاِنۡ يَّتَفَرَّقَا يُغۡنِ اللّٰهُ كُلًّا مِّنۡ سَعَتِهٖ​ ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ وَاسِعًا حَكِيۡمًا‏  
( 130 )   But if they separate [by divorce], Allah will enrich each [of them] from His abundance. And ever is Allah Encompassing and Wise.
Verses 131-134 Have fear of Allah in your dealings:

وَلِلّٰهِ مَا فِى السَّمٰوٰتِ وَمَا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ ​ؕ وَلَـقَدۡ وَصَّيۡنَا الَّذِيۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡكِتٰبَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَاِيَّاكُمۡ اَنِ اتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ​ؕ وَاِنۡ تَكۡفُرُوۡا فَاِنَّ لِلّٰهِ مَا فِى السَّمٰوٰتِ وَمَا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ​ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيۡدًا‏ 
( 131 )   And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And We have instructed those who were given the Scripture before you and yourselves to fear Allah. But if you disbelieve - then to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And ever is Allah Free of need and Praiseworthy.
 Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Notice the refrain: "To Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth": repeated three times, each time with a new application. In the first instance it follows the statement of Allah's universal providence and love. If two persons, in spite of every sincere desire to love and comfort each other, fail to achieve that end, and have to separate, Allah's all-reaching bounty never fails, for He is the Lord of all things. In the second instance it is connected with Allah's Self-existence, Self-excellence, and independence of all creatures: all His commands are for our good, and they are given to all His creatures, according to their capacities. In the third instance, it is connected with His universal power; for He could destroy any individual or nation and create a new one without any loss to Himself; but He gives a chance to all again and again, and even rewards them beyond their own ambitions.

وَلِلّٰهِ مَا فِى السَّمٰوٰتِ وَمَا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ ​ؕ وَكَفٰى بِاللّٰهِ وَكِيۡلً
( 132 )   And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.
Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Allah's existence is absolute existence. It does not depend on any other person or any other thing. And it is worthy of all praise, for it is all-good and comprises every possible excellence. It is necessary to stress this point in order to show that the moral law for man is not a mere matter of transcendental commands, but really rests on the essential needs of mankind itself. If therefore such schools of thought as Behaviourism proved their theories up to the hilt, they do not affect the position of Islam in the least. The highest ethical standards are enjoined by Islam, not as dogmatic imperatives, but because they can be shown to follow from the needs of man's nature and the results of man's experience.

 اِنۡ يَّشَاۡ يُذۡهِبۡكُمۡ اَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَيَاۡتِ بِاٰخَرِيۡنَ​ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ عَلٰى ذٰلِكَ قَدِيۡرًا‏ 
( 133 )   If He wills, He can do away with you, O people, and bring others [in your place]. And ever is Allah competent to do that.
Yusuf Ali's Explanation:
Allah does not need us, but we need Him. Our hopes, our happiness, our success centre in Him; but He is Self-sufficient. He has the power to supersede us, but His goodness is ever seeking to give us every chance in this world as well as in the Hereafter.

 مَنۡ كَانَ يُرِيۡدُ ثَوَابَ الدُّنۡيَا فَعِنۡدَ اللّٰهِ ثَوَابُ الدُّنۡيَا وَالۡاٰخِرَةِ​ ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ سَمِيۡعًاۢ بَصِيۡرًا
( 134 )   Whoever desires the reward of this world - then with Allah is the reward of this world and the Hereafter. And ever is Allah Hearing and Seeing.
First, that people should not entertain the illusion that they have the power to make or mar the destinies of others, that if they were to withdraw their support, people would be left helpless. The fact is that the destinies of all lie in the Hand of God alone and He need not remain dependent upon any single person as the sole instrument for helping any particular creature. The resources of the Lord of the heavens and the earth are limitless and He also knows how to use those resources.

Second, that the followers of the Prophet (peace be on him) ought to heed the admonition that was made to them, just as it was made to the followers of the former Prophets: to fear God in all their actions. They are being told in effect that by following God's guidance they will secure their own well-being rather than be the source of any benefit to God, that they can do God no harm by disobeying Him, just as it did not lie in the power of the followers of the former Prophets to cause God any harm. The Lord of the Universe does not need people's obedience. If they disobey He may simply replace them with some other nation, and their dismissal will not diminish the majesty and splendour of His realm in the least.

Third, that God alone has the power to dispense the good of this world as well as that of the Hereafter, to lavish transient benefits as well as abiding felicity. It all depends on a man's nature and the extent of his ambition what kind of benefit he seeks from God. If a man is infatuated with the fleeting benefits of this world, and is prepared to sacrifice the benefits of the everlasting life, then God will grant him only the good of this world and he will have no share in the good of the Hereafter. God's benevolence is like a river which never dries up, a river which is both capable of, and geared to, providing abundant water to all who need their tillage watered. It is short-sighted and unambitious to want one's fields to be irrigated only once, and to be prepared thereafter to face the prospect of eternal drought. Anyone with breadth of vision would commit himself to submit to God and obey Him, thereby earning the well-being of both worlds.

The section ends with the assertion that God is All-Seeing and All-Hearing. This means that God is fully aware of the actions of His creatures, and is unlike those negligent sovereigns who are blind in lavishing their favours. God governs the universe with full knowledge and awareness. He has an eye on the capacities and ambitions of all human beings and knows their qualities exactly. He is fully aware of the purposes to which people devote their efforts and energies. Anyone who 'wilfully decides to be disobedient to God should therefore not cherish hopes of receiving the favours reserved for those who obey Him.

You may now like to listen to Arabic recitation of Sürah An-Nisa' with English subtitles:

You may refer to our post "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, meaning and summary / exegesis of other chapters (Though not complete but building up from 30th Juzʼ / Part backwards for chapters in 30th Juzʼ / Part are shorter and easier to understand). 

You may also refer to our Reference Pages for knowing more about Islam and Quran.
Photo | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. [2]
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources: 
In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites.

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