Tuesday 7 May 2019

Surah Al Jathiya -The Kneeling: Exegesis / Tafseer of 45th Surah (chapter) of the Holy Quran

Sūrat al-Jāthiyah is the forty fifth surah with 37 ayahs with four rukus, part of the 25th Juzʼ  of the Holy Qur'an. The surah It is derived from the sentence wa tartt kullu ummat- in jathiyat-un  جَاثِيَةً of verse 28.

Sūrat al-Jāthiyah  is one of the seven consecutive surahs of the Holy Quran which are affixed the Letters Ha-Meem " حٰمٓ ". Chronologically they all belong to the same Makkan Period, and they immediately follow the last Sürah in time. These seven surahs that begin with same dis-joined words are:
The Surah answers the doubts and objections of the disbelievers of Makkah about Tawhid and the Hereafter and warns them for their attitude that they had adopted against the message of the Qur'an. A brief description of the subject matter has already been given in the Summary of the surah already published. We now present the detailed explanation / tafseer / exegesis of the surah now. Also find a video by eminent scholar Nouman Ali Khan explaining the surah in his own very words.

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"
( 1 )   حٰمٓ ". Ha, Meem.
[These disjoined letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'an, and none but Allah (Alone) knows their meanings - see our earlier post for details: Understanding the Holy Quran: Huroof Muqatta’at - Disjoined Letters].

Verses 2-11 are food for thought to those who are seeking the signs of Allah and If they do not believe in Allah and His revelations then in what report will they believe?

تَنۡزِيۡلُ الۡكِتٰبِ مِنَ اللّٰهِ الۡعَزِيۡزِ الۡحَكِيۡمِ
( 2 )   The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
The opening verse while gives out to f the 99 attributes of Allah as highlighted, it also warns the listeners of two things: (1) That this Book is not the composition of Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself, but it is being sent down to him by Allah,  (2) That it is being sent down by that Allah Who is All- Mighty as well as All-Wise. His being the Almighty demands that man should not dare disobey His commands, for if he disobeys Him, he cannot escape His punishment. And His being the All-Wise demands that man should obey and follow His Guidance and His commands with full satisfaction and willingness of the heart, for there can be no possibility of His teachings being wrong or inadequate or harmful in any way.
( 3 )  Behold, for those who believe there are (myriad) Signs in the heavens and the earth.
To begin the discourse like this after the introduction, indicates that in the background there are the objections of the people of Makkah, which they were raising against the teachings of the Prophet (peace be upon him). They said: After all, how can we believe this one man when he says that all those great beings to whose shrines we have been dedicated and devoted so far, are nothing and that Godhead belongs to only One God? About this it is being said that the world is replete with the signs of the reality to which they are being invited. If only they saw with open eyes, they would find those signs in themselves and outside them everywhere, which testify that this whole universe is the creation of One and only One God, and He alone is its Master and Ruler and Controller. It didn’t need to be pointed out what was the nature of the signs in the earth and heavens, for the dispute at that time centered around the point that the polytheists were insisting on believing in other gods and deities besides Allah, and the Quran gave the message that there was neither a god nor a deity beside One God. Therefore, it was apparent by itself from the content that the signs were of the truth of Tawhid and of the refutation of shirk.
( 4 )   And in the creation of yourselves and what He disperses of moving creatures are signs for people who are certain [in faith].
Those who cannot find signs of Allah, must consider seriously their own creation, the structure of their own body, and the variety of animals found on the earth, they will see countless signs as will leave no doubt in their minds that all this did not come into being without a God, or that it stood in need of more than one God for its creation.

(For explanation, see (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 37-38); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 5,8); (Surah Al-Hajj, Ayat 57); (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayats 12-14); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayat 54); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 78-81); (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 64); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayats 20-21, 54); (E.Ns 14 to 18 of Surah As-Sajdah); (Surah YaSeen, Ayats 71- 73); (Surah Az-Zumar, Ayat 6); and (E.Ns 97, 98, 110 of Surah Al-Mumin).
( 5 )  and in the succession of night and day,4 and in the provision that Allah sends down from the sky wherewith He gives life to the earth after it had been lifeless,6 and in the change of the winds: (in all these) there are Signs for people who use reason.
The difference of the night and day is a sign because one follows the other with full regularity, because one is bright and the other dark, because over a certain period the day goes on shortening and the night lengthening gradually till the two become equal in duration, then again the day goes on lengthening and the night shortening till the two again become equal in duration. These different kinds of variations found in the night and the day and the great aspects of wisdom that accrue from these, are a clear pointer to the fact that the Creator of the sun and the earth and of every thing on the earth is one and that one All- Powerful Being is keeping both these spheres under His control. Such a Being is not deaf and blind and unwise but All-Wise, Who has established this unalterable system and made His earth a suitable place for the countless species of life, which He has created here in the form of vegetables, animals and men. (For explanation, see (Surah Younus, Ayat 67), (Surah An Naml, Ayat 86); (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayats 71-73); (Surah Luqman, Ayat 29); (Surah YaSeen, Ayat 37).

Provision: Rainfall see explanation in (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayats 18-20); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayats 48-49); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayat 7); (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 61); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayats 24, 48), (Surah YaSeen: Ayats33-36).

The circulation of the winds implies the circulation of the different kinds of winds at different times, on different parts of the earth and at different heights, which cause change of the seasons. What deserves attention is not only that above the surface of the earth there is a thick atmosphere, which contains all those elements needed by living beings for breathing, and this thick covering has kept the earth’s population safe from many of the heavenly calamities. Besides, another noteworthy thing is that the air is not just filled inertly in the atmosphere, but it blows occasionally in different ways. Sometimes a cool wind blows and sometimes a hot wind. Sometimes it stops blowing and sometimes it starts blowing. Sometimes it blows soft and sometimes strong, and sometimes it assumes the proportions of a storm. Sometimes a dry wind blows and sometimes a moist wind. Sometimes it brings the rain and sometimes it drives away the clouds. These different kinds of the winds do not blow without a purpose, but under a law and a system, which testifies that this arrangement is based on perfect wisdom, and it is serving great objectives. Then it is deeply related with coolness and heat, which go on increasing and decreasing according to the changing conditions and relationships between the earth and the sun. Furthermore, it has a deep relation with the seasonal changes and the distribution of the rain. All these facts proclaim that these arrangements have not been made haphazardly by some blind nature. Nor the sun and the earth and the air and water and vegetation and animals have separate controllers, but inevitably One God alone is the Creator of them all, and it is His Wisdom that has established this system for a great objective, and it is His power that it is functioning regularly according to a preordained law.
( 6 )   These are the verses of Allah which We recite to you in truth. Then in what statement after Allah and His verses will they believe?
That is, when these people have not believed even after Allah’s own arguments have been presented for His Existence and His Unity, what else can be there by which they will gain the faith? For Allah’s Word is the final thing by which a person can attain to this blessing, and the maximum of the rational arguments that could possibly be given to convince someone of an unseen reality have been presented in this divine Word. In spite of this if a person is bent upon denial, he may persist in his denial, for his denial cannot change the reality.
( 7 )   Woe to every sinful liar
( 8 )   Who hears the verses of Allah recited to him, then persists arrogantly as if he had not heard them. So give him tidings of a painful punishment.
In the verse 8, mention is made of people who would never believe in any revelation whatsoever, for they have already locked their heart up to every revelation of Allah. In this state such people generally are involved as are characterized by the following three qualities: (1) They are liars; therefore, the truth does not appeal to them, (2) They are wrongdoers; therefore, it is very hard for them to believe in a teaching or guidance that may impose moral restrictions on them, and (3) They are involved in the conceit that they know everything, and that none can teach them anything; therefore, they do not regard as worthy of attention and consideration Allah’s revelations that are recited to them, and it is all the same for them whether they listen to them or not.
( 9 )   And when he knows anything of Our verses, he takes them in ridicule. Those will have a humiliating punishment.
مِنۡ وَّرَآئِهِمۡ جَهَنَّمُۚ وَلَا يُغۡنِىۡ عَنۡهُمۡ مَّا كَسَبُوۡا شَيۡـئًـا وَّلَا مَا اتَّخَذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اَوۡلِيَآءَ​ ۚ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِيۡمٌؕ‏   
( 10 )   Before them is Hell, and what they had earned will not avail them at all nor what they had taken besides Allah as allies. And they will have a great punishment.
The word wara is used for every such thing as is hidden from man, whether it is before him or behind him. Therefore, another translation can be: They have Hell behind them. In the first case, the meaning would be: They are unconsciously running on this way and have no idea that there is Hell in front of them in which they would fall; in the second case, it would mean: They are engaged in this mischief of theirs, thoughtless of the Hereafter, and they have no idea that Hell is in pursuit of them.

The word wali (guardian) has been used in two meanings:
  • (1) For those gods and goddesses and living and dead guides about whom the polytheists thought that anybody who was devoted to them, would escape Allah’s punishment, whatever he might have done in the world, for their intercession will save them from Allah’s wrath.
  • (2) For those chiefs and leaders and rulers whom the people took as their guides and patrons independent of God and followed them blindly and tried to please them even if they had to displease God.
This verse warns all such people that when they will face Hell in consequence of this way of life, neither of the two kinds of the guardians will come forward to save them from it.
( 11 )   This [Qur'an] is guidance. And those who have disbelieved in the verses of their Lord will have a painful punishment of foul nature.
Verses 12-17 explain that Allah has subjected the seas and all that is between the heavens and the earth for human beings and (continues for verses 18-21):
( 12 )   It is Allah who subjected to you the sea so that ships may sail upon it by His command and that you may seek of His bounty; and perhaps you will be grateful.( 13 )   And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth - all from Him. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought.
( 14 )   Say, [O Muhammad], to those who have believed that they [should] forgive those who expect not the days of Allah so that He may recompense a people for what they used to earn.
Literally: Who do not except the days of Allah. But in Arabic usage on such occasions, ayyam does not merely mean days but those memorable days in which important historical events may have taken place. For example, the word ayyam-ul-Arab is used for the important events of the history of the Arabs and the major battles of the Arab tribes, which the later generations remember for centuries. Here, ayyam-Allah implies the evil days of a nation when the wrath of Allah may descend on it and ruin it in consequence of its misdeeds. That is: Those who do not fear the coming of evil days from Allah, i.e. those who do not fear that a day will come when they will be called to account for their actions and deeds, and this same fearlessness has made them bold and stubborn in acts of wickedness.
( 15 )   Whoever does a good deed - it is for himself; and whoever does evil - it is against the self. Then to your Lord you will be returned.
( 16 )   And We did certainly give the Children of Israel the Scripture and judgement and prophet-hood, and We provided them with good things and preferred them over the worlds.
In the verse 16, it does not mean that the children of Israel were given preference over all the people of the world forever, rather it means: Allah had chosen the children of Israel from among all the contemporary nations of the world for the service that they should hold fast to the divine Book and should rise as the standard bearers of God worship in the world.
( 17 )   And We gave them clear proofs of the matter [of religion]. And they did not differ except after knowledge had come to them - out of jealous animosity between themselves. Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ.
In Surah Al Baqarah, verse 213, same theme has been used:
In the beginning mankind followed one single way. (Later on this state ended and differences arose.) Then Allah sent forth Prophets as heralds of good tidings for the righteous and as warners against the consequences of evil-doing. He sent down with them the Book embodying the Truth so that it might judge among people in their disputes. And those who innovated divergent ways rather than follow the Truth were none other than those who had received the knowledge of the Truth and clear guidance; and they did so to commit excesses against each other.230 So by His leave Allah directed the believers to the Right Way in matters on which they disagreed. Allah guides whomsoever He wills onto a Straight Way. 
Verses 18-21 are for the warning of the wrongdoers who are protectors of one another while the protector of righteous is Allah Himself:
( 18 )   Then We put you, [O Muhammad], on an ordained way concerning the matter [of religion]; so follow it and do not follow the inclinations of those who do not know.
It means: The mission that had been entrusted to the children of Israel before you has now been entrusted to you. They, in spite of receiving knowledge, created such differences in religion out of selfish motives and stirred up such divisions among themselves that they became disqualified to call the people to God’s way. Now you have been set upon the clear pathway of religion so that you may perform the service which the children of Israel have failed to perform and became disqualified to perform it. (For further explanation, see (Ash-Shura, Ayats 13-15 and explanation).
( 19 )   Indeed, they will never avail you against Allah at all. And indeed, the wrongdoers are allies of one another; but Allah is the protector of the righteous.
That is, if you make any changes in Allah’s religion only to please them, they will not be able to save you from Allah’s accountability and punishment.
( 20 )   This [Qur'an] is enlightenment for mankind and guidance and mercy for a people who are certain [in faith].
That is, this Book and this Shariah present such a light for all the people of the world, which distinguishes the truth from falsehood, but only such people receive any guidance from it who believe in its truth; for them only it is a mercy.

After the invitation to Tawhid, the discourse from verse 21 turns to the theme of the Hereafter:
( 21 )   Or do those who commit evils think We will make them like those who have believed and done righteous deeds - [make them] equal in their life and their death? Evil is that which they judge.
This is the moral reasoning for the truth of the Hereafter. The difference of good and evil in morals and of goodness and wickedness in deeds necessarily demands that the good and the evil people should not meet with one and the same end, but the good should be rewarded for their good and the wicked punished for their evil deeds. Otherwise, if the good and the evil end up similarly, the distinction of virtue and vice in morals becomes meaningless and God becomes unjust. The people who follow evil ways in the world do want that there should be no accountability and no rewards and punishments, for this concept goes against their enjoyment of life, but it is against the justice and wisdom of the Lord of the worlds that He should treat the good and the evil alike, and should not care to see how the righteous believer has lived his life in the world and how the sinful unbeliever has been enjoying it. One of them kept himself subjected to moral restrictions all his life, rendered the rights of those to whom they were due, restrained himself from the unlawful benefits and pleasures, and continued to incur losses for the sake of the truth. The other fulfilled his desires in every possible wary, neither recognized the rights of God nor hesitated from violating the rights of the people, but went on collecting benefits and good things of life in every possible way. Can it be expected of God that He would overlook the difference between the lives of the two kinds of men? If the end of both be the same, no greater injustice could be conceived. (For further explanation, see (Surah Younus, Ayat 4); (Surah Houd, Ayat 106); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 38,39); ( Surah Al- Hajj, E.N. 9), (Surah An-Naml, E.N. 86), (Surah Ar-Rum, Ayat 7-8); (Surah Suad, Ayat 28;and E.N. 30) on it.

Verses 22-26 are exclusively addressed to the one who has made his own desires as his god, Allah let him go astray and set a seal upon his ears and heart:
( 22 )   And Allah created the heavens and earth in truth and so that every soul may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.
Allah has not created the earth and the heavens for mere sport, but it is a wise system with a purpose. In this system it is absolutely unimaginable that the people who may have accomplished good deeds by the right use of the powers and means and resources granted by Allah, and the people who may have spread mischief and wickedness by their wrong use, should end up ultimately in the dust after death, and there should be no life Hereafter in which their good and bad deeds should lead to good or bad results according to justice.

Thus if the good people are not rewarded for their goodness, and the wicked are not punished for their wickedness, and the grievances of the oppressed are not redressed, it would be injustice. There cannot be such an injustice in the kingdom of God. Likewise, there cannot also be the other kind of injustice that a good man be given a lesser reward than what is due to him, or a bad man be given a greater punishment than what he deserves.
(23) Did you ever consider the case of him who took his desire as his god, and then Allah caused him to go astray despite knowledge, and sealed his hearing and his heart, and cast a veil over his sight? Who, after Allah, can direct him to the Right Way? Will you not take heed?
“Desire his god” implies that one should become a slave of his lusts and desires. He should do whatever he likes whether God has forbidden it, and should not do what he dislikes, whether God has made it obligatory. When a man starts obeying somebody like this, it means that his deity is not God but the one whom he is obeying without question, no matter whether he calls him his lord (with the tongue) or not, and carves out an image of him and worship him or not. For when he has worshiped him directly without question, it is enough to make him a deity and after this practical shirk one cannot be absolved from the guilt of shirk only because he did not call the object of his worship as his deity with the tongue, nor prostrated himself before it. The major commentators also have given the same commentary of this verse. Ibn Jarir says: The forbidden things by Allah are forbidden. He does not regard the things made lawful by Him as lawful. Abu Bakr al-Jassas gives this meaning: He obeys his desires as one should obey his God.

From the context in which this verse occurs, it becomes obvious that only those people deny the Hereafter, who want to serve their desires and who regard belief in the Hereafter as an obstacle to their freedom. Then, once they have denied the Hereafter, their servitude of the self goes on increasing and they go on wandering further into deviation. They commit every kind of evil without feeling any qualms. They do not hesitate to usurp the rights of others. They cannot be expected to restrain themselves when there is an opportunity for them to commit an excess or injustice only because of a regard for justice and truth in their hearts. The events and incidents that can serve as a warning for a man are witnessed by them too, but they draw the wrong conclusion that whatever they are doing is right and they should do the same. No word of advice moves them. No argument, which can stop a man from evil, appeals to them; but they go on devising and furnishing more and more arguments to justify their unbridled freedom, and their minds remain day and night engaged only in devising ways and means of fulfilling their own interests and desires in every possible way instead of engaging in a good thought. This is an express proof of the fact that the denial of the Hereafter is destructive for human morals. The only thing that can restrain man within the bounds of humanity is the feeling that man is not irresponsible but has to render an account of his deeds before God. Being devoid of this feeling, even if a person is highly learned, he cannot help adopting an attitude and behavior worse than that of the animals.
( 24 )   And they say, "There is not but our worldly life; we die and live, and nothing destroys us except time." And they have of that no knowledge; they are only assuming.
( 25 )   And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, their argument is only that they say, "Bring [back] our forefathers, if you should be truthful."
That is, this Book and this Shariah present such a light for all the people of the world, which distinguishes the truth from falsehood, but only such people receive any guidance from it who believe in its truth; for them only it is a mercy.
( 26 )   Say, "Allah causes you to live, then causes you to die; then He will assemble you for the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt, but most of the people do not know."
The final verses 27-37 give out Allah's address to the disbelievers on the day of judgement:
( 27 )   And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. And the Day the Hour appears - that Day the falsifiers will lose.
 In view of the context, this sentence by itself gives the meaning that it is not at all beyond the power of God Who is ruling over this great and marvelous universe that He should bring the human beings whom He has created in the first instance back into existence once again.

وَتَرٰى كُلَّ اُمَّةٍ جَاثِيَةً​ كُلُّ اُمَّةٍ تُدۡعٰۤى اِلٰى كِتٰبِهَا ؕ اَلۡيَوۡمَ تُجۡزَوۡنَ مَا كُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ‏  
( 28 )   And you will see every nation kneeling [from fear]. Every nation will be called to its record [and told], "Today you will be recompensed for what you used to do.
That is, the dread and terror of the Plain of Resurrection and the awe of the divine court will be such that it will break the stubbornness of the most arrogant and boastful people, and everyone will be found fallen on his knees humbly.
( 29 )   This, Our record, speaks about you in truth. Indeed, We were having transcribed whatever you used to do."
The only possible way of getting a thing recorded is not by means of the pen and paper only. Man himself has discovered in this world several other forms of recording human words and actions and reproducing them exactly and accurately; and we cannot even imagine what other possibilities of it lie yet undiscovered, which man himself will discover and exploit in the future. Now, who can know how and by what means is Allah getting recorded man’s every word, his every movement and action, even his hidden intentions and motives and desires and ideas, and how He will place before every man and every group and every nation his or its whole lifework accurately and exactly?
( 30 )   So as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, their Lord will admit them into His mercy. That is what is the clear attainment.( 31 )   But as for those who disbelieved, [it will be said], "Were not Our verses recited to you, but you were arrogant and became a people of criminals?
( 32 )   And when it was said, 'Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth and the Hour [is coming] - no doubt about it,' you said, 'We know not what is the Hour. We assume only assumption, and we are not convinced.' "
The people mentioned in verse 24 above were those who denied the Hereafter openly and absolutely, here those who are not sure of it although they do not deny its possibility because of conjecture. Apparently there is a vast difference between the two groups in that one of them denies the Hereafter absolutely and the other regards it as possible on the basis of conjecture. But as for the result and final end, there is no difference between them, for the moral consequences of the denial of the Hereafter and of lack of the faith in it are the same. A person, whether he disbelieves in the Hereafter or lacks faith in it, will in either case be inevitably devoid of the feeling of accountability before God, and this lack of feeling will necessarily involve him in the error and deviation of thought and action. Only faith and belief in the Hereafter can keep a man on the right track in the world. In the absence of it, both doubt and denial give him a similar attitude of irresponsibility, and since this same attitude of irresponsibility is the real cause of man’s being doomed in the Hereafter, therefore neither the denier of it can escape Hell nor the one who lacks faith in it.
( 33 )   And the evil consequences of what they did will appear to them, and they will be enveloped by what they used to ridicule.( 34 )   And it will be said, "Today We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours, and your refuge is the Fire, and for you there are no helpers.
( 35 )   That is because you took the verses of Allah in ridicule, and worldly life delude you." So that Day they will not be removed from it, nor will they be asked to appease [Allah].
This last sentence depicts the manner of a master who after rebuking some of his servants turns to others and says: Well, these wretched people now deserve such and such punishment!
( 36 )   Then, to Allah belongs [all] praise - Lord of the heavens and Lord of the earth, Lord of the worlds.
( 37 )   And to Him belongs [all] grandeur within the heavens and the earth, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
The argument having been completed about the fruits of this life being reaped in the Ma'ad, or the Hereafter, when perfect balance will be restored and perfect Justice will reign supreme, the Sura closes with praise and glory to Allah, Who is not only Omnipotent but is full of Wisdom, and cherishes and cares for all His creation.

We began with the remembrance of His Revelation and Mercy, and we close with the celebration of His goodness, power, and wisdom. Note how the argument is rounded off by the reminiscence of the last clause of the second verse of this Sūrah.

You may now like to listen to tafseer of Sūrat al-Jāthiyah Nouman Ali Khan:
Please refer to our Reference Page "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, explanation and exegesis of all other chapters of the Qur'an. You may also refer to our Reference Pages for knowing more about Islam and Quran.
    Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully. An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
    • The plain translation and explanation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
    • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.  [2]
    In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources (links to Reference Pages given below):  
    • Tafsir Ibn Khatir
    • Muhammad Asad Translation
    • Al-Quran, Yusuf Ali Translation
    • Javed Ahmad Ghamidi / Al Mawrid
    • Qur'an Wiki
    • Verse by Verse Qur'an Study Circle
    • Tafsir Nouman Ali Khan
    • Towards Understanding the Quran
    In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given below. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites:

    Photo | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
    An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic souses and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. However, the exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran are basically based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites. 

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