Showing posts with label Allagh. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Allagh. Show all posts

Tuesday 28 May 2019

Surah As Saffat - Those Who Set the Ranks: Exegesis of 37th chapter of the Holy Quran - Part III

Sūrah Aṣ-Ṣāffāt is the 37th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 182 verses (āyāt) and five rukhu, part of the 23rd Juz'.

In the Overview of the Sūrah, it was explained that the exegesis / tafseer of this Sūrah will be segmented owing to its length as under:
  • Part - I: Rukhu 1-2 (verses 1-74)
  • Part - II Rukhu 3-4 (Verses 75-138)
  • Part - III Rukhu 5 (Verses 139-182)
With exegesis / tafseer of rukhus 1-4 already given in the Parts I and II, this post covers the last ruku covering verses 139-182. 
The last verses of the Surah were not only a warning for the disbelievers of Makkah, but also a good news for the believers who were passing through highly unfavorable and discouraging conditions on account of their supporting and following the Holy Prophet. In these verses they were given the good news that they should not be disheartened at the hardships and difficulties they had to encounter in the beginning, for in the end they alone would attain dominance, and the standard bearers of falsehood, who appeared to be dominant at the time would be overwhelmed and vanquished at their hands. A few years later the turn the events took, proved that it was not an empty consolation but an inevitable reality of which they had been foretold in order to strengthen their hearts.

Let us now read the translation and exegesis / tafseer in English of the Rukhu 5 (Verses 139-182) of the Surah. For Arabic Text, please refer to the references given at the end and may also listen to its recitation in Arabic with English subtitles:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"

Verses 149-166 mention allegations of the disbelievers of Makkah of Angels being daughters of Allah and Jinns having blood relations with Allah and a strong rebuttal by Allah for these claims being utterly false.

In fact, another theme starts from here. In the preceding theme that started from verse 11, the Quraish had been put this question: Ask them: what is more difficult: their own creation or of those things that We have created? Now, they are being asked this second question. The object of the first question was to warn the disbelievers of their deviation because of which they regarded life-after-death and the meting out of rewards and punishments as impossible, and therefore, mocked the Prophet (peace be upon him) for it. Now they are being asked this second question to warn them of their ignorance due to which they attributed children to Allah and would join anybody with Allah in any relationship they liked on mere conjecture.
149. Now ask them (O Muhammad ): "Are there (only) daughters for your Lord and sons for them?"
Traditions show that in Arabia the tribes of Quraish, Juhainah, Bani Salimah, Khuzaah, Bani Mulaih, etc. held the belief that the angels were Allah’s daughters. This belief of their ignorance has been referred to at several places in the Quran, e.g. in (Surah An-Nisa, Ayat 117); (Surah An- Nahl, Aytas 57-58); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayat 40); (Surah Az- Zukhruf, Ayats 16, 19); (Surah An-Najm, Ayats 21-27).
150. Or did We create the angels females while they were witnesses? 151. Verily, it is of their falsehood that they (Quraish pagans) say: 152. "Allah has begotten offspring or children (i.e. angels are the daughters of Allah)?" And, verily, they are liars! 153. Has He (then) chosen daughters rather than sons? 154. What is the matter with you? How do you decide? 155. Will you not then remember? 156. Or is there for you a plain authority? 
157. Then bring your Book if you are truthful!
That is, there can be only two bases for regarding the angels as the daughters of Allah. Either such a thing could be said on the basis of observation, or the one who asserted it should possess a divine book in which Allah Himself might have stated that the angels were His daughters. Now, if those who held such belief could neither make a claim to have observed such a thing nor did they possess any divine book that might contain such a thing, there could be no greater stupidity than this that one should base his religious belief on mere conjecture, and attribute to Allah, Lord of the worlds, such things as were patently ridiculous

وَجَعَلُوۡا بَيۡنَهٗ وَبَيۡنَ الۡجِنَّةِ نَسَبًا ؕ​ وَلَقَدۡ عَلِمَتِ الۡجِنَّةُ اِنَّهُمۡ لَمُحۡضَرُوۡنَۙ‏ 
158. And they have invented a kinship between Him and the jinns, but the jinns know well that they have indeed to appear (before Him) (i.e. they will be brought for accounts).
Though the word used is al-jinnah instead of almalaikah, some major commentators have opined that here the word jinn has been used for malaikah in its literal sense (of hidden creation); malaikah (angels) also are, in reality, a hidden creation, and the following theme also demands that al jinnah here be taken in the sense of al-malaikah.
159. Glorified is Allah! (He is Free) from what they attribute unto Him! 160. Except the slaves of Allah, whom He chooses (for His Mercy i.e. true believers of Islamic Monotheism who do not attribute false things unto Allah). 161. So, verily you (pagans) and those whom you worship (idols). 162. Cannot lead astray [turn away from Him (Allah) anyone of the believers], 
163. Except those who are predestined to burn in Hell!
Another translation of this verse can be: Therefore, you and your worship: on this you cannot tempt into mischief anyone except him. According to this second translation, the meaning would be: O you who have gone astray, by this worship that you are performing before us, and regarding us as the children of Allah, Lord of the worlds, you cannot tempt us into mischief. By this you can only beguile a fool who might be working for his own doom. So, we refuse to fall into the trap that you have set for us.
164. There is not one of us (angels) but has his known place (or position);
That is, not to speak of being Allah’s children, we do not have the power to exceed in any way or degree the place and position and status appointed for each of us by Allah.
165. Verily, we (angels), we stand in rows for the prayers (as you Muslims stand in rows for your prayers); 166. Verily, we (angels), we are they who glorify (Allah's Praises i.e. perform prayers).
Verses 167-182 give glad tidings that Allah has promised to help His Rasools and His devotees:
167. And indeed they (Arab pagans) used to say; 168. "If we had a reminder as had the men of old (before the coming of Prophet Muhammad  as a Messenger of Allah).
169. "We would have indeed been the chosen slaves of Allah (true believers of Islamic Monotheism)!"
This same thing has already been mentioned in( Surah Fatir, Ayat 42). "Swearing by Allah their strongest oaths they claimed that if a warner came to them they would be better-guided than any other people. But when a warner did come to them, his coming only increased their aversion (to the Truth)."
170. But (now that the Qur'an has come) they disbelieve therein (i.e. in the Qur'an and in Prophet Muhammad  , and all that which he brought, the Divine Revelation), so they will come to know! 171. And, verily, Our Word has gone forth of old for Our slaves, the Messengers, 172. That they verily would be made triumphant.
173. And that Our hosts, they verily would be the victors.
Allah’s army: implies the believers who obey Allah’s Messenger and side with him. This also includes those unseen powers by which Allah helps the followers of the truth.
This help and domination does not necessarily mean that in every age every Prophet of Allah and his followers must attain political dominance, but this dominance has many forms, one of which is political rule as well. Wherever the Prophets of Allah did not attain any such dominance, they did establish their moral superiority even in those places. The nations which did not accept their message and adopted a way contrary to their teachings were ultimately doomed to destruction. Whatever philosophies of error and misguidance the people invented and whatever corrupt and evil practices of life they enforced died out ultimately after they had their sway for some time. But the truths preached by the Prophets of Allah for thousands of years have been unalterable before as they are unalterable today. No one has been able to disprove them in any way.
174. So turn away (O Muhammad ) from them for a while,
175. And watch them and they shall see (the punishment)!
That is, it will not take long when they will see their defeat and your victory with their own eyes. This proved to be true as it had been foretold. Hardly 14 to 15 years had passed after the revelation of these vases when the pagans of Makkah witnessed the Prophet (peace be upon him) enter their city as a conqueror, and then a few years later the same people saw that Islam had overwhelmed not only Arabia but the mighty empires of Rome and Iran as well.
176. Do they seek to hasten on Our Torment?
177. Then, when it descends into their courtyard (i.e. near to them), evil will be the morning for those who had been warned!
178.  So turn (O Muhammad ) away from them for a while,
179. And watch and they shall see (the torment)!
180. Glorified be your Lord, the Lord of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they attribute unto Him!
181. And peace be on the Messengers!
182. And all the praise and thanks be to Allah, Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).
Here we come to the end of the Part III of the exegesis / tafseer of rukus 5 (verses 149-182) of the surah and the end of Surah As Saffat as well.. In the Part III exegesis / tafsir of the fifth ruku (verses 149-182) will be presented. May Allah help us to understand the Holy Quran better than before. Aameen.

You may now like to listen to Arabic recitation of Sūrah Aṣ-Ṣāffāt  with English subtitles:

You may refer to our post "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, meaning and summary / exegesis of other chapters (Though not complete but building up from 30th Juzʼ / Part backwards for chapters in 30th Juzʼ / Part are shorter and easier to understand). 

Photo | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 45 |
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. However, the exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran are basically based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites. 

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