Showing posts with label Allegations. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Allegations. Show all posts

Tuesday 28 May 2019

Surah As Saffat - Those Who Set the Ranks: Exegesis of 37th chapter of the Holy Quran - Part III

Sūrah Aṣ-Ṣāffāt is the 37th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 182 verses (āyāt) and five rukhu, part of the 23rd Juz'.

In the Overview of the Sūrah, it was explained that the exegesis / tafseer of this Sūrah will be segmented owing to its length as under:
  • Part - I: Rukhu 1-2 (verses 1-74)
  • Part - II Rukhu 3-4 (Verses 75-138)
  • Part - III Rukhu 5 (Verses 139-182)
With exegesis / tafseer of rukhus 1-4 already given in the Parts I and II, this post covers the last ruku covering verses 139-182. 
The last verses of the Surah were not only a warning for the disbelievers of Makkah, but also a good news for the believers who were passing through highly unfavorable and discouraging conditions on account of their supporting and following the Holy Prophet. In these verses they were given the good news that they should not be disheartened at the hardships and difficulties they had to encounter in the beginning, for in the end they alone would attain dominance, and the standard bearers of falsehood, who appeared to be dominant at the time would be overwhelmed and vanquished at their hands. A few years later the turn the events took, proved that it was not an empty consolation but an inevitable reality of which they had been foretold in order to strengthen their hearts.

Let us now read the translation and exegesis / tafseer in English of the Rukhu 5 (Verses 139-182) of the Surah. For Arabic Text, please refer to the references given at the end and may also listen to its recitation in Arabic with English subtitles:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"

Verses 149-166 mention allegations of the disbelievers of Makkah of Angels being daughters of Allah and Jinns having blood relations with Allah and a strong rebuttal by Allah for these claims being utterly false.

In fact, another theme starts from here. In the preceding theme that started from verse 11, the Quraish had been put this question: Ask them: what is more difficult: their own creation or of those things that We have created? Now, they are being asked this second question. The object of the first question was to warn the disbelievers of their deviation because of which they regarded life-after-death and the meting out of rewards and punishments as impossible, and therefore, mocked the Prophet (peace be upon him) for it. Now they are being asked this second question to warn them of their ignorance due to which they attributed children to Allah and would join anybody with Allah in any relationship they liked on mere conjecture.
149. Now ask them (O Muhammad ): "Are there (only) daughters for your Lord and sons for them?"
Traditions show that in Arabia the tribes of Quraish, Juhainah, Bani Salimah, Khuzaah, Bani Mulaih, etc. held the belief that the angels were Allah’s daughters. This belief of their ignorance has been referred to at several places in the Quran, e.g. in (Surah An-Nisa, Ayat 117); (Surah An- Nahl, Aytas 57-58); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayat 40); (Surah Az- Zukhruf, Ayats 16, 19); (Surah An-Najm, Ayats 21-27).
150. Or did We create the angels females while they were witnesses? 151. Verily, it is of their falsehood that they (Quraish pagans) say: 152. "Allah has begotten offspring or children (i.e. angels are the daughters of Allah)?" And, verily, they are liars! 153. Has He (then) chosen daughters rather than sons? 154. What is the matter with you? How do you decide? 155. Will you not then remember? 156. Or is there for you a plain authority? 
157. Then bring your Book if you are truthful!
That is, there can be only two bases for regarding the angels as the daughters of Allah. Either such a thing could be said on the basis of observation, or the one who asserted it should possess a divine book in which Allah Himself might have stated that the angels were His daughters. Now, if those who held such belief could neither make a claim to have observed such a thing nor did they possess any divine book that might contain such a thing, there could be no greater stupidity than this that one should base his religious belief on mere conjecture, and attribute to Allah, Lord of the worlds, such things as were patently ridiculous

وَجَعَلُوۡا بَيۡنَهٗ وَبَيۡنَ الۡجِنَّةِ نَسَبًا ؕ​ وَلَقَدۡ عَلِمَتِ الۡجِنَّةُ اِنَّهُمۡ لَمُحۡضَرُوۡنَۙ‏ 
158. And they have invented a kinship between Him and the jinns, but the jinns know well that they have indeed to appear (before Him) (i.e. they will be brought for accounts).
Though the word used is al-jinnah instead of almalaikah, some major commentators have opined that here the word jinn has been used for malaikah in its literal sense (of hidden creation); malaikah (angels) also are, in reality, a hidden creation, and the following theme also demands that al jinnah here be taken in the sense of al-malaikah.
159. Glorified is Allah! (He is Free) from what they attribute unto Him! 160. Except the slaves of Allah, whom He chooses (for His Mercy i.e. true believers of Islamic Monotheism who do not attribute false things unto Allah). 161. So, verily you (pagans) and those whom you worship (idols). 162. Cannot lead astray [turn away from Him (Allah) anyone of the believers], 
163. Except those who are predestined to burn in Hell!
Another translation of this verse can be: Therefore, you and your worship: on this you cannot tempt into mischief anyone except him. According to this second translation, the meaning would be: O you who have gone astray, by this worship that you are performing before us, and regarding us as the children of Allah, Lord of the worlds, you cannot tempt us into mischief. By this you can only beguile a fool who might be working for his own doom. So, we refuse to fall into the trap that you have set for us.
164. There is not one of us (angels) but has his known place (or position);
That is, not to speak of being Allah’s children, we do not have the power to exceed in any way or degree the place and position and status appointed for each of us by Allah.
165. Verily, we (angels), we stand in rows for the prayers (as you Muslims stand in rows for your prayers); 166. Verily, we (angels), we are they who glorify (Allah's Praises i.e. perform prayers).
Verses 167-182 give glad tidings that Allah has promised to help His Rasools and His devotees:
167. And indeed they (Arab pagans) used to say; 168. "If we had a reminder as had the men of old (before the coming of Prophet Muhammad  as a Messenger of Allah).
169. "We would have indeed been the chosen slaves of Allah (true believers of Islamic Monotheism)!"
This same thing has already been mentioned in( Surah Fatir, Ayat 42). "Swearing by Allah their strongest oaths they claimed that if a warner came to them they would be better-guided than any other people. But when a warner did come to them, his coming only increased their aversion (to the Truth)."
170. But (now that the Qur'an has come) they disbelieve therein (i.e. in the Qur'an and in Prophet Muhammad  , and all that which he brought, the Divine Revelation), so they will come to know! 171. And, verily, Our Word has gone forth of old for Our slaves, the Messengers, 172. That they verily would be made triumphant.
173. And that Our hosts, they verily would be the victors.
Allah’s army: implies the believers who obey Allah’s Messenger and side with him. This also includes those unseen powers by which Allah helps the followers of the truth.
This help and domination does not necessarily mean that in every age every Prophet of Allah and his followers must attain political dominance, but this dominance has many forms, one of which is political rule as well. Wherever the Prophets of Allah did not attain any such dominance, they did establish their moral superiority even in those places. The nations which did not accept their message and adopted a way contrary to their teachings were ultimately doomed to destruction. Whatever philosophies of error and misguidance the people invented and whatever corrupt and evil practices of life they enforced died out ultimately after they had their sway for some time. But the truths preached by the Prophets of Allah for thousands of years have been unalterable before as they are unalterable today. No one has been able to disprove them in any way.
174. So turn away (O Muhammad ) from them for a while,
175. And watch them and they shall see (the punishment)!
That is, it will not take long when they will see their defeat and your victory with their own eyes. This proved to be true as it had been foretold. Hardly 14 to 15 years had passed after the revelation of these vases when the pagans of Makkah witnessed the Prophet (peace be upon him) enter their city as a conqueror, and then a few years later the same people saw that Islam had overwhelmed not only Arabia but the mighty empires of Rome and Iran as well.
176. Do they seek to hasten on Our Torment?
177. Then, when it descends into their courtyard (i.e. near to them), evil will be the morning for those who had been warned!
178.  So turn (O Muhammad ) away from them for a while,
179. And watch and they shall see (the torment)!
180. Glorified be your Lord, the Lord of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they attribute unto Him!
181. And peace be on the Messengers!
182. And all the praise and thanks be to Allah, Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).
Here we come to the end of the Part III of the exegesis / tafseer of rukus 5 (verses 149-182) of the surah and the end of Surah As Saffat as well.. In the Part III exegesis / tafsir of the fifth ruku (verses 149-182) will be presented. May Allah help us to understand the Holy Quran better than before. Aameen.

You may now like to listen to Arabic recitation of Sūrah Aṣ-Ṣāffāt  with English subtitles:

You may refer to our post "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, meaning and summary / exegesis of other chapters (Though not complete but building up from 30th Juzʼ / Part backwards for chapters in 30th Juzʼ / Part are shorter and easier to understand). 

Photo | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 45 |
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. However, the exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran are basically based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites. 

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Tuesday 9 October 2018

Misleading Concept of Moon god Allah

Since emergence of Islam as one of the dominant religion, the people of the earlier Divine Books and faith, specially the Jews and Christians have started to feel a threat to their faiths as more and more people of other faiths are converting to Islam everyday that passes. For this very reason, we usually come across abject propaganda by them in the shape of hate literature and caricatures.

In one of our earlier posts "Jewish perception of Islam as Idolatrous" we put across a misleading perception by the Jews labeling Islam as Idolatrous by contending that the Muslims worshiped Muhammad (The revered last prophet of Allah) rather than the God the Jews worshiped. Please read our post on the subject with reference given below.

Today, I came across yet another concept, this time by the Christians, in which they believe that Muslims believe in the "moon god" as was done in the times before Islam. The idea was proposed by archaeologist Hugo Winckler in 1901. It was proliferated in the United States in the 1990s, first via the publication of Robert Morey's pamphlet The Moon-god Allah: In Archeology of the Middle East (1994), eventually followed by his book The Islamic Invasion: Confronting The World's Fastest-Growing Religion (2001). Morey's ideas were popularized by cartoonist and publisher Jack Chick, who drew a fictionalized cartoon story entitled "Allah Had No Son" in 1994. [1]

Many websites of Bible Societies and even otherwise of individual Christians have tried to prove that the moon-god found in the pre-Islamic era, both in Arabia and otherwise is in fact the same Allah that Muslims worship after Muhammad (peace be upon him, the Prophet of Allah) introduced "his" religion to come up with a religion to contest that of Jews and Christians. And have thus tried to present many photos of artifacts and relics showing worship of moon. They also content that Allah is the name derived from the moon-gods.

Then there is yet another question posed by the Christians: "Why is Allah never defined in the Qur'an? Why did Muhammad assume that the pagan Arabs already knew who Allah was?" Muhammad was raised in the religion of the Moon-god Allah. But he went one step further than his fellow pagan Arabs. While they believed that Allah, i.e. the Moon-god, was the greatest of all gods and the supreme deity in a pantheon of deities, Muhammad decided that Allah was not only the greatest god but the only god. My only reaction here is from my Christian friends: Has God been "defined" in the Old or New Testaments or an other holy scriptures before Islam? They wont find an answer to this but Holy Qur'an very clearly defines Allah in Allah's own words in the Holy Qur'an. In fact, one of the main themes of the Quran is to describe Allah and his oneness his attributes and actions. Here are some excerpts from the Holy Qur'an:

إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي 
Allah Himself tells who He is: "Indeed, I am Allah. There is no other god except Me. So, worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance." [Al Quran, Surah Ta Ha, Chapter 20, verse 14]
Allah - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. [Al Qur'an, Chapter 2, Surah Albaqarh, 255]
[All] praise is [due] to Allah , who created the heavens and the earth and made the darkness and the light. Then those who disbelieve equate [others] with their Lord. It is He who created you from clay and then decreed a term and a specified time [known] to Him; then [still] you are in dispute. And He is Allah , [the only deity] in the heavens and the earth. He knows your secret and what you make public, and He knows that which you earn. [Al Quran, Surah Al-An'am Chapter 6 verses 1-3] 
It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light and determined for it phases - that you may know the number of years and account [of time]. Allah has not created this except in truth. He details the signs for a people who know. {Al Quran Surah Yunus Chapter 10, verse 5] 
There can be no more proofs that Christians would want, as these are just three references that define Allah.

It is very amazing that the Christians have tried to correlate the word Allah with moon-god while forgetting that Allah is an Arabic word and in the lands of Arab the Arabic language has been there since centuries. They object to word Allah as if Muhammad (peace be upon him, the Prophet of Allah) had coined it. It may be recalled that name "Allah" was in use even  before the birth of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).  A proof of that is his father was named as Abdullah (meaning: servant of Allah). Therefore it should not be misunderstood that the name of Allah was introduced by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

The word Allah as translation of God also appears in countless Bibles translated into Arabic, but strangely then no Christian objects to it. Sarah Lynn Johnson, a Christian Woman married to Muslim Man also substantiate this contention in an question -answer session on "Why do some non-Muslims say Allah was the moon god of Arab polytheists before Islam?" says: 
Allah is the Arabic word for God. Arab Christians also call God, “Allah.” Anyone who speaks Arabic will do this because that is the word in Arabic. My husband is Egyptian; when he refers to God while speaking English, he calls him God. When he is speaking Arabic, he calls him Allah. [2]
I came across an interesting revelation in one of the Christian sites which claimed that "The reader must know that Islam, Judaism, and organized Christianity all worship a trinity of gods." Now this is the most absurd statement I have ever come across. I as a Muslim know that all Muslims squarely and flatly reject the concept of Trinity (Father, son and the holy ghost) as all Muslims strictly believe in one monotheist Allah and reject all forms of polytheism. 

In order to be a Muslim, one must surrender oneself to God, and believe in the oneness of God, in the sense of His being the only Creator, Preserver and Nourisher. Having believed in oneness of Allah, a Must also acknowledge the Allah alone deserves to be worshiped, and thus abstains from worshiping any other thing or being.

Now coming back to the concept of moon-god Allah. In the Holy Qur'an, Allah makes it very clear that all landmarks like sun, moon and stars and every celestial object are His signs of creation and are NOT to bow down to:
"And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not bow down (prostrate) to the sun nor to the moon, but only bow down (prostrate) to "Allah" Who created them, if you (really) worship Him." [Holy Quran Surah Fussilat, 41st Chapter, verses 37-43]
If this commandment does not satisfy the proponents of moon-god Allah, then they may like to read the following verse regarding the status of moon:
"They ask you about the new moons. Say: These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage." [Holy Quran Surah Al Baqarah Chapter 2, verse 189]
The above two verses, thus clearly and amply make it clear that the celestial landmarks are signs of Allah's creation and to mark fixed periods of time (through sun) of the day and days and months (through moon).

Now as for the usage of moon on most of the flags of the Islamic countries does not mean that Muslims revere moon. In fact in the early days of Islam and of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), Islamic armies and caravans flew simple solid-colored flags (generally black, green, or white) for identification purposes. In later generations, the Muslim leaders continued to use a simple black, white or green flag with no markings, writing, or symbolism of any kind.

In fact the use of the crescent symbol on Muslim flags and roof finial on Islamic buildings originated when the Ottoman Empire won over the city of Byzantium (later known as Constantinople and Istanbul) and adopted the crescent moon and star of the Byzantium's existing flag and symbol. Thereafter other Muslim countries too started using the crescent and star combination in their flags and roof finial on masjid. [3]

No matter what idols related to the moon god have been discovered of the pre-Islam era, this does not have any effect on the post Islam era. In fact right from the day the message of Allah dawned on to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), there was no doubt as to the oneness of Allah, the one true God that was henceforth to be followed and worshiped. And with the capture of Makkah, the first thing that the Prophet of Allah dis was wipe out all 360 plus idols kept in and outside of Ka'aba and restored it as a pure and clean house of Allah as was built by Prophet Abrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismael (peace be upon them both). And thus from that day on, Islam wiped out all traces of idolatry and pagan practices from Arabia. Did any idol of moon-god figured out thereafter?

And last point to end up the useless discussion originated by the Christians to find a lame excuse to propagate against the Muslims. Over the years, the crescent moon has become a symbol of Muslim faith, like the Star of David for Jewish people, and the Cross for Christians. Muslims don’t worship the moon, nor do Jewish people worship stars or Christians worship the letter t. Please ponder over it !!

Please read a detailed Reply to Robert Morey's Moon-God Allah Myth: A Look At The Archaeological Evidence

You may read more posts on countering / responding to lies / misinformation and disinformation about Islam: The Rebuttal: Countering disinformation being spread about Islam (Reference Page)

If you like Islam: My Ultimate Decision, and to keep yourself updated on all our latest posts to know more about Islam, follow us on Facebook

Please share this page to your friends and family members through Facebook, WhatsApp or any means on Social Media so that they can also be benefited by it and better understand Islam and the Holy Qur'an - Insha Allah (Allah Willing) you shall be blessed with the best of both worlds.

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