Showing posts with label Fair. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Fair. Show all posts

Saturday 15 June 2019

99 Attributes of Allah: Al - Adl - The Absolutely Just

ʻAdl (عدل ) is an Arabic word meaning ‟justice." Justice is the maintenance or administration of what is just especially by the impartial adjustment of conflicting claims or the assignment of merited rewards or punishments. Therefore we look forward to the quality of being just, impartial, or fair in a judge or an arbitrator. But despite having been bestowed upon them to impart justice, more often than not judges and arbitrators are found to be injst or partial or unfair.

Thus Allah, the Almighty, the Master of this whole universe, Who has to administer a balance among everything, describes Himself as the Absolutely Just ot the Al-`Adl (العدل):

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ ۝ 

Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and of good deeds (to others) and the giving to the kindred, and He forbids indecency, evil, and rebellion; He admonishes you so that you may be mindful" (Quran, 16:90).

The reference form the Holy Qur'an so stated means that He is the One Who always acts justly. The One who delivers absolute justice. 

Adl also means moderation; Thus Al-`Adl is not expected to oppress rights of humans nor oppress them or by being inequitable to anyone in His decrees and actions. In fact Allah grants everyone what is due to him, rather in many cases rewards more than one deserves, while when it comes to punishing someone, He is always very thoughtful, discreet and humble. He does not burden anyone more than one's capabilities or abilities. He thus rectifies and sets matters straight in a fair, impartial and equitable manner

“Verily, We (Allah) have created all things in due measures.” [Al-Qamar 54; 49]

By being Just and Al Adl, Allah has created a fine tuned balance in everything that He has created. The length of the day and the night, the distance between the sun, the moon and the earth, and the size of the moon and the earth are all most rightly and justly designed: “Say (O Muhammad): ‘Tell me! If Allah made the night continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, which god besides Allah could bring you light? Will you not then hear?’ 
Allah is “Al-‘Adl” (the All Just) that He is most just in His creation; i.e. He creates all things most rightly and justly, and with utmost divine wisdom and justness: “And it is He, Who has created the heavens and the earth in the truth, and on the Day (of Resurrection) He will say: ‘Be!’ and it will be.” [Al-An’am 6; 73]
The balance and equilibrium in the universe is a manifestation of the name Al-Adl. Here are some examples for those who have wisdom to ponder:
What about the oxygen balance in the atmosphere of the earth? The atmosphere contains 21% oxygen, 77% nitrogen, and 2% other gases. If the proportion of oxygen was a little over 21%, the world could easily burn if you were to light a match to turn on the oven. And if it was less than 21%, we would be breathless as if somebody wrapped a rope around our neck. 
A whiting fish lays 6 million eggs per year. If all whiting fish survived, the seas would be overflowing with whiting fish in less than a year. However, only one dozen of those whiting fish can survive as the rest become bait for other fish.
An organism has the capacity to have a weight equal to 5000 worlds in 44 hours if it has the favorable conditions. If this microorganism were to proliferate as it wished, it would be able to invade this world on its own. Nevertheless, this microorganism has not been given permission to do this so that the rights of other life forms can be protected. To prevent its invasion, the microorganism has been forced to struggle against various enemies. What prevents this microorganism from growing is the manifestation of the name al-Adl.
Adl is essentially part of Tawheed. Belief that Allah is Just, He will reward or punish any person according to his deeds. Those deprived when see those who are blessed often complain and wonder about this quality of the Master of the universe. But it needs a lot of wisdom and understanding of how Allah manages His affairs. Although a situation may seem unfair to some due to limited understanding, the Supreme Justice is absolute and unerring in fairness and equality, for He ensures to create a balance, counterbalance, to make equal, uniform. He sends rain in one area but deprives other of it, but He still ensures that life still continues there and plants grow up with aid of water.
“Allah burdens not a self (person) beyond its scope.” [Al-Baqarah 2; 286]
The month of Ramadan is one of the fine examples of Allah being Just and not burdening His believers to be unduly stressed and burdened.  He commands us to fast for thirty days, i.e. the whole month of Ramadan, every year. If He commanded you to fast for six months, it would be unbearable. This is because the last days of the month of Ramadan seem so long and hard, as if each day were a whole month. The fast in Islam is only for thirty days, which is right and just. Moreover, the month being dependent on lunar calendar comes in different seasons so that people of one particular area where weather is harsh are not subjected to fasting every year in the same month.

Likewise if we ponder over the timings of ovulation of a woman, we would be amazed how Just and Fair Allah is. If a woman’s ovulation went on till the end of her life, she would have babies even when she were eighty or more years old, which would be really unbearable. Due to Allah’s Mercy upon women, He, Most Gracious, makes ovulation usually goes on until they are only forty-five or fifty. In other words, ovulation in women is most rightly and justly designed.  

Messenger of Allah has been quoted as saying (Bukhari and Muslim)
"There are seven types of people whom Allah will shade on a Day when there will be no shade except His: a just imam, a young man who grows up adoring Allah, a man whose heart is always attached to mosques, two men who love one another for the sake of Allah: they meet and they part only accordingly, a man sought by a woman of prominence and beauty [for illicit sex] and to whom he says, `I fear Allah,' a man who pays charity and hides his action, so much so that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives away, and a man who mentions the Name of Allah for the sake of remembering Him while his tears overflow." 
Foregoing in view, it can be rightly concluded that the Islamic concept of, Adl is very comprehensive and implies fairness and equity in every thing a person says or does. It covers the comments we make, the judgments we pass, the way we handle our responsibilities and obligations to others, the way we deal with people, the way we handle differences, the way we treat others whether they are members of our family, friends, relatives, strangers or enemies. Fairness, equity and justice must be a hallmark of our behaviour in all of these areas.
“And when you speak, be just, even if it concerns a close relative.” (Al-An‟aam 6:152)“O believers! Have Taqwa and say only the words that are appropriate.” (Al-Ahzaab 33:70)“So, those who do not repent, they indeed are the Zhaalimeen (unjust, wrongdoers, inequitable, transgressors).” (Al-Hujuraat 49:11)
Therefore, if we expect Allah to be just and equitable, we should start being just and fair ourselves first. Those at the helm of affairs of governments when exceed the limits of being just, fair and fail to make comfortable with what is right, draw the wrath of Allah and we have many many examples from the history to be quoted when entire civilizations vanished when they defied Allah and exceeded the limits. The wrath of Allah on the oppressors is a manifestation of the name al-Adl. The destruction of the nation of Noah, Ad, Thamud, the Pharaohs, Nimrods and Qarun (Croesus) are due to the manifestation of this name. Wherever there is an oppressor and wherever an oppressor receives a heavenly blow, the manifestation of the name al-Adl is there.
“O believers, be the enforcers/establishers of justice, giving witness for the sake of Allah, even if it is against yourselves, your parents or your kith and kin. Whether they are rich or poor, Allah has more rights than any on them. Do not let pursuing your desires come in the way of being just.” (An-Nisa 4:135)
As a Muslim, therefore, we must ensure are lives are lived justly, ni words spoken to hurt others, no actions that mar development of others and no intentions to overtake others by usurping their rights. Let our lives be model of what Adl really means so as to create a harmonious environment around us and try to convince the oppressors to walk the path of Adl and fairness. If they do not still listen, then let Allah, the Al Adl, take a toll of them, for All is all seeing.

You may refer to our post "99 Attributes of Allah" for complete list of 99 attributes of Allah Almighty with meaning and explanation.

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