Showing posts with label Surah An-Nāziʻāt. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Surah An-Nāziʻāt. Show all posts

Wednesday 25 November 2020

Surah An-Nāziʻāt - Those Who Tear Out / The Extractors: Exegesis 79th Chapter of Quran

Sūrah An-Nāziʻāt " النازعات " is the seventy ninth sürah with 46 āyāt with two rukus, part of the 30th Juzʼ  of the Holy Qur'ān. The surah takes its title from the word wan-nazi`at with which the Surah opens. The root (n-z-‘) roughly means “to yank out with great force.”

This is also an early Makkan Surah. According to Hadrat Abdullah bin Abbas, this Surah was sent down after Surah 78 An-Naba. The surah deals with the theme of Judgment from the point of view of Pride and its Fall The parable of Pharaoh occupies a central place in the argument: for he said "I am your Lord Most High", and perished with his followers.

The surah is divided into two ruku as under:
  • Ruku One: Verses 1-26. In this ruku verses 1-14 spell out Duties of angels and the day of resurrection, while verses 15-26 narrate story of Prophet Musa (Moses, peace be un him) when he called Fir'on to his Rabb, he denied and was seized for punishment
  • Ruku Two: Verses 27-46. In this ruku, verses 27-33 Creation of man is not harder than the creation of heavens, earth and its contents, while verses 34-46 Punishment and reward on the day of judgement 
We have already presented the overview / summary of the sürah. Let us now read the verse by verse translation and exegesis / tafseer in English. You may also listen to its tafsir at the end of the post:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ 
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"

Ruku One : Verses 1-14 [Duties of angels and the day of resurrection]
Verses 1-7 are Oaths by the messengers of death that there will be a resurrection and judgment-day:

وَالنّٰزِعٰتِ غَرۡقًا ۙ‏ 
( 1 )   By those [angels] who extract with violence

Tafsir Ibn Kathir: Swearing by Five Characteristics that the Day of Judgement will occur (The first five verses):

Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Abu Ad-Duha and As-Suddi all said, (By those who pull out, drowning.) "These are the angels who remove the souls from the Children of Adam.'' Among them are those whose souls are removed by the angels with difficulty, as if he is being drowned during its removal. There are those people whose souls the angels remove with ease, as if they were unraveling him (i.e., his soul from him) due to their briskness.

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
The beginning of this Surah may be compared with the beginning of S. lxxvii. A translator's task in such passages is extremely difficult. He has to contend, again and again, with verities of a realm beyond man's normal range of experience expressed in elliptical language and he has to render them in another language with words of precision intelligible to readers. It is therefore necessary for him to put in part of the Commentary in the Translation in such cases. The evidence of five things is here invoked in verses 1-5, in order to lead to the conclusion in verse 6 and those following. Or, if we treat verses 3-5 as three stages of the same thing, there are three things to be considered in five stages. What are they? And what is the conclusion? See the following notes.

'There is much difference of opinion among the Commentators as to the five things or beings mentioned in these verses. I follow the general opinion in my interpretation, which is that angels are referred to as the agency which in their dealings with mankind show clearly Allah's Justice, Power, and Mercy, which again point to the Judgment to come, as a certainty which none can evade. The first point, referred to in this verse, is that the souls of the wicked are loath to part with their material body at death, but their will will not count: their souls will be wrenched out into another world. Who will then deny Resurrection and Judgment?

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
The actual word is: نٰزِعٰت. It is stated in Surah al-Qamar: تَنۡزِعُ النَّاسَۙ کَاَنَّہُمۡ اَعۡجَازُ نَخۡلٍ مُّنۡقَعِرٍ (54:19-20). The word نٰزِعٰت is an attribute formed from the verb تَنْزِعُ. The word غَرۡقًا occurs in the accusative because of being a verbal noun. With regard to the meaning, this word and the word نَزْعًا are almost synonymous.

وَّالنّٰشِطٰتِ نَشۡطًا ۙ‏ 
( 2 )   And [by] those who remove with ease

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
The second point is that in contrast with the wicked, the souls of the blessed will be drawn out gently to their new fife. They will be ready for it. In fact death for them will be a release from the grosser incidents of bodily sense. To them the approach of Judgment will be welcome.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
The actual word is: نٰشِطٰت. It is from نَشْط which also means to do something gently. Here, there is a strong indication that this word has been used for gentle and mild winds in much the same way the words فَالۡجٰرِیٰتِ یُسۡرًا (3:51) occur in Surah al-Dhariyat.

Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: It should be kept in consideration that the apparent effects of strong and gentle winds are different; however, the grandeur and majesty of God is evident in both. Surah al-Dhariyat has a different context in which the gentleness of the wind is mentioned as a prelude to the mention of rain. Here the wind is mentioned independently because of which it can include both its good and bad effects. Its good effects are obvious because its blowing becomes a source of life, freshness and delight; however, both these type of effects are totally in the hands of the Almighty. If He wants, even gentle winds can become a source of destruction. Consequently, the account of Moses (sws) and the Pharaoh mentioned further ahead in the surah attests to this fact. The Almighty saved Moses (sws) and the Israelites through the impact of the strong easterly wind and it was the gentleness of this wind which destroyed the Pharaoh and his armies. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 9, 176)

وَّالسّٰبِحٰتِ سَبۡحًا ۙ‏ 
( 3 )   And [by] those who glide [as if] swimming

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
At all times there are errands of mercy and blessing and errands of justice, which the angels are prompt to execute by order of Allah. There are three features of this, thus giving the third, fourth, and fifth points. (3) Their movement is compared to that of gliding or swimming (sabhan). In xxi. 33 this verb is applied to the motion of the celestial bodies: they all "swim along, each in its rounded course". Cf. Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice: "There's not an orb which thou behold'st, But in his motion like an angel sings, Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubims". (4) In hurrying on their errands the angels press forth as in a race. (5) And thus they promptly execute the orders of their Lord.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
The actual word is: سٰبِحٰت. It is from سَبْح, which also means “to float.” Its mention with the winds shows that it is used as an attribute for clouds. The two attributes mentioned subsequently begin with the particle ف which is a clear indication that these attributes are those of سٰبِحٰت and there is also a sequence also between these attributes.
فَالسّٰبِقٰتِ سَبۡقًا ۙ‏  
( 4 )   And those who race each other in a race

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
What is mentioned in the verses by the words فَالسّٰبِقٰتِ سَبۡقًا فَالۡمُدَبِّرٰتِ اَمۡرًا is very much the same as the one mentioned in Surah al-Dhariyat and Surah al-Mursalat in the very similar verses: فَالۡجٰرِیٰتِ یُسۡرًا فَالۡمُقَسِّمٰتِ اَمۡرًا (51:3-4) and (77:4-5) فَالۡفٰرِقٰتِ فَرۡقًا فَالۡمُلۡقِیٰتِ ذِکۡرًا respectively. In other words, what is said in Surah al-Dhariyat by the words فَالۡمُقَسِّمٰتِ اَمۡرًا is said here by the words: فَالۡمُدَبِّرٰتِ اَمۡرًا. 

Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: Prior to this, the words فَالسّٰبِقٰتِ سَبۡقًا portray the racing of clouds which becomes evident in the skies when various groups of clouds appear and try to outrun one another. It looks as if they are competing with each other at divine bidding and each one of them is desirous of fulfilling its duty first. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 9, 177)

فَالۡمُدَبِّرٰتِ اَمۡرًا​ ۘ‏ 
( 5 )   And those who arrange [each] matter,
Here, the object for which an oath has been sworn by beings having five qualities has not been mentioned; but the theme that follows by itself leads to the conclusion that the oath has been sworn to affirm that the Resurrection is a certainty, which must come to pass, when all dead men shall be resurrected. Nor is there any mention as to what are the beings possessed of the qualities. However, a large number of the companions and their immediate successors and most of the commentators have expressed the opinion that they are the angels. Abdullah bin Masud, Abdullah bin Abbas, Masruq, Saeed bin Jubair, Abu salih Abud-Duha and Suddi say that “those who pull out with violence and those who draw out gently” imply the angels, who wrench out the soul of man at death from the very depths of his body, from its every fiber. “Those who glide about swiftly”, according to Ibn Masud, Mujahid, Saeed bin Jubair and Abu Salih, also imply the angels, who hurry about swiftly in execution of divine commands as though they were gliding through space. The same meaning of “those who hasten out as in a race” has been taken by Ali, Mujahid, Masruq, Abu Salih and Hasan Bari, and hastening out implies that each one of them hurries on his errand as soon as he receives the first indication of divine will. “Those who conduct the affairs” also imply the angels as has been reported from Ali, Mujahid, Ata Abu Salih, Hasan Bari, Qatadah, Rabi bin Anas and Suddi. In other words, these are the workers of the kingdom of the universe, who are conducting all the affairs of the world in accordance with Allah’s command and will. Though this meaning of these verses has not been reported in any authentic Hadith from the Prophet (peace be upon him), while this meaning has been given by some major companions and their immediate successors and pupils, one is led to form the view that they must have obtained this knowledge from the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself.

Now the question arises: On what basis has the oath been sworn by these angels for the occurrence of the Resurrection and life after death when they themselves are as imperceptible as the thing for the occurrence of which they have been presented as an evidence and as an argument. In our opinion the reason is (and Allah has the best knowledge) that the Arabs were not deniers of the existence of the angels. They themselves admitted that at the death the soul was taken out by the angels; they also believed that the angels moved at tremendous speeds; they could reach any place between the earth and the heavens instantly and promptly execute any errand that was entrusted to them. They also acknowledged that the angels are subordinate to divine will and they conduct the affairs of the universe strictly and precisely in accordance with divine will; they are not independent and masters of their will. They regarded them as daughters of Allah out of ignorance and worshipped them as deities, but they did not believe that they possessed the real authority as well. Therefore, the basis of the reasoning from the above mentioned attributes for the occurrence of the Resurrection and life after death is that the angels who took the soul by the order of God, could also restore the soul by the order of the same God; and the angels who conducted the affairs of the universe by the order of God could also upset this universe by the order of the same God whenever He so ordered them and could also bring about a new world order. They would not show any negligence or delay in the execution of His command.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
`Ali, Mujahid, `Ata', Abu Salih, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, and As-Suddi all said, "They are the angels.'' Al-Hasan added, "They control the affairs from the heaven to the earth, meaning by the command of their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic.''

يَوۡمَ تَرۡجُفُ الرَّاجِفَةُ ۙ‏ 
( 6 )   On the Day the blast [of the Horn] will convulse [creation],

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
The Description of the Day of Judgement, the People, and what They will say: Then Allah says, (On the Day the Rajifah shakes, followed by the Radifah.) Ibn `Abbas said, "These are the two blasts (of the Trumpet) -- the first and the second.'' Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others have made similar statements. 

It has been reported from Mujahid that he said, "In reference to the first, it is the statement of Allah, (On the Day the Rajifah shakes,) This is similar to Allah's statement, (On the Day the earth and the mountains shake.) (73:14) The second is Ar-Radifah, and it is like the Allah's statement, (And the earth and mountains shall be removed from their places, and crushed with a single crushing.) (69:14)''

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
The evidence of the wonderful working of the angels having been invoked in the first five verses, the conclusion is now drawn and stated. It is certain that one great Day, the whole world as we now see it in our lower life will be in violent revolution. It will be like an earthquake destroying all land-marks. But that will affect only things subject to change: they will suffer violent convulsions as a preliminary to their disappearance. But Allah and His divine order will not change: His "Face" abideth for ever, full of Majesty, Bounty, and Honour (lv. 27).

تَتۡبَعُهَا الرَّادِفَةُ ؕ‏ 
( 7 )   There will follow it the subsequent [one].
The first jolt implies the jolt which will destroy the earth and everything on it, and the second jolt at which all dead men will rise up from death and from their graves. This same state has been described in Surah Az-Zumar, thus: And when the Trumpet shall be blown on that Day, all those who are in the heavens and the earth shall fall down dead except those whom Allah may allow (to live). Then the Trumpet shall be blown again and they will all stand up, looking around. (verse 68).

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
The Commotion will be repeated again and again in the transitory world, to make way for the new world that will then come into being.

قُلُوۡبٌ يَّوۡمَـئِذٍ وَّاجِفَةٌ ۙ‏ 
( 8 )   Hearts, that Day, will tremble,
Hearts shall tremble: because, according to the Quran, only the disbelievers, the wicked people and the hypocrites will be terror-stricken on the Resurrection Day, the righteous believers will remain secure from this terror. About them in Surah Al-Anbiya (verse 103) it has been said: The time of great fright will not trouble them at all; the angels will rush forth to receive them, saying: This is the very day which you were promised.

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
All hearts will be in agitation: those of the blessed ones to see the beginning of the fulfilment of their Lord's Promise; those of the Rejecters of Allah for fear of His just Judgement.

اَبۡصَارُهَا خَاشِعَةٌ​ ۘ‏ 
( 9 )   Their eyes humbled.

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
Similarly all eyes will be cast down: those of the blessed ones in humble modesty, and those of the Rejecters of Allah, in utter humiliation, sorrow, and shame, for their arrogance and insolence in their probationary life.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
meaning, the eyes of the people. It means that the eyes will be lowly and disgraced from what they will witness of terrors. Allah then says:

يَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ءَاِنَّا لَمَرۡدُوۡدُوۡنَ فِى الۡحَـافِرَةِ ؕ‏ 
( 10 )   They are [presently] saying, "Will we indeed be returned to [our] former state [of life]?

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
The Unbelievers say now, in their arrogance, insolence, and mocking defiance: "Surely death here is the end of all things! When we are dead and buried, and our bones are rotten, how can we be restored again?" They add, "If that were so, then we should indeed be in a turn of dreadful luck! Instead of gaining by the Resurrection, we should be in terrible loss (with our rotten bones)!" They mean this in biting mockery. But there will indeed be an Account taken, and they will indeed be in a terrible loss, for they will go to perdition!

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
meaning, the idolators of the Quraysh and whoever rejects the Hereafter as they did. They consider the occurrence of the resurrection after being placed in Al-Hafirah -- which are the graves -- as something farfetched. This has been said by Mujahid. They feel that this is something impossible after the destruction of their physical bodies and the disintegration of their bones and their decaying. Thus, Allah says:

ءَاِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا نَّخِرَةً ؕ‏ 
( 11 )   Even if we should be decayed bones?

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
It has also been recited: (نَاخِرَةً) (Nakhirah) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah, all said, "This means decayed.'' Ibn `Abbas said, "It is the bone when it has decayed and air enters into it.''

قَالُوۡا تِلۡكَ اِذًا كَرَّةٌ خَاسِرَةٌ​ ۘ‏ 
( 12 )   They say, "That, then, would be a losing return."
That is, when they were told that they would surely be raised back to life after death, they started mocking it, saying to one another: Well, if we have really to be restored to our former state of life, then we would certainly be doomed.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
(It would in that case be a return with loss.) (79:12) Muhammad bin Ka`b said that the Quraysh said, "If Allah brings us back to life after we die, then surely we will be losers.''

فَاِنَّمَا هِىَ زَجۡرَةٌ وَّاحِدَةٌ ۙ‏ 
( 13 )   Indeed, it will be but one shout,

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
Judgment will be insugurated with a single compelling Cry. Cf. xxxvii. 19. See also xxxvi. 29 and 49, where the single mightly Blast seems to refer to the sinners being cut off in this life and plunged into the other world where they will be further judged, and xxxvi. 53, where the final Judgment is referred to.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
(But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they are at As-Sahirah. verses 13-14) meaning, this is a matter that is from Allah that will not occur twice, nor will there be any opportunity to affirm it or verify it. The people will be standing and looking. This will be when Allah commands the angel Israfil to blow into the Sur, which will be the blowing of the resurrection. At that time the first people and the last people will all be standing before their Lord looking. 

This is as Allah says, (On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed but a little while!) (17:52) 

Allah has also said, (And our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (54:50) Allah also says, (And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye, or even nearer.) (16:77) 

Allah then says:

فَاِذَا هُمۡ بِالسَّاهِرَةِ ؕ‏ 
( 14 )   And suddenly they will be [alert] upon the earth's surface.
That is, they are mocking it as an impossibility, whereas it is not at all a difficult task for Allah for the performance of which He may have to make lengthy preparations. For it only a single shout or cry is enough at which your dust of ash will gather together from wherever it lay, and you will suddenly find yourself alive on the back of the earth. Thinking this return to be a return to loss, you may try to escape from it however hard you may, but it will inevitably take place; it cannot be averted by your denial, escape or mockery.

Yusuf Ali Explanation:
They will have been more or less dormant before the Great Judgment, as contrasted with the Lesser Judgment (see explanation of verse 40 of S. lxxviii., and verse 22 to S. lxxv.). When the resurrection comes, they will come fully into the new world, the old heaven and earth having then completely passed away, not only for them but absolutely.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
Ibn `Abbas said, "As-Sahirah means the entire earth.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Abu Salih have all said this as well. `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, and Ibn Zayd have all said, "As-Sahirah means the face of the earth.'' Mujahid said, "They will be at its (the earth's) lowest part, and they will be brought out to highest part.'' Then he said, "As-Sahirah is a level place.'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, (When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) "Allah says, (On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (14:48) and He says, (And they ask you concerning the mountains: say, "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust. Then He shall leave them as a level smooth plain.You will see therein nothing crooked or curved.) (20:105-107) 

And Allah says, (And the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away, and you will see the earth as a leveled plain.) (18:47) and the earth will be brought forth which will have mountains upon it, and it will not be considered from this earth (of this life). It will be an earth that no sin will be performed on it, nor will any blood be shed upon it.''

Ruku One: Verses 15-26 Story of Prophet Musa (Moses, peace be un him) when he called Fir'on to his Rabb, he denied and was seized for punishment:

هَلۡ اَتٰٮكَ حَدِيۡثُ مُوۡسٰى​ۘ‏ 
( 15 )   Has there reached you the story of Moses? -
As the denial of the Resurrection and Hereafter by the disbelievers of Makkah and their mockery of it was not, in fact, rejection of a philosophy but belying Allah’s Messengers, and the tricks that they were employing against the Prophet (peace be upon him) were not against an ordinary man but were meant to frustrate the mission of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him), the story of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and the Pharaoh is being related before giving additional arguments for the occurrence of the Hereafter so that they are warned of the consequences of fighting with the Messenger and resisting the God Who sent him.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
Allah informs His Messenger Muhammad about His Messenger Musa. He mentions that he sent Musa to Fir`awn and He aided him with miracles. Yet, even after this, Fir`awn continued in his disbelief and transgression until Allah seized him with a mighty and powerful punishment. Thus is the punishment of whoever opposes you (Muhammad ) and rejects that which you have been sent with. This is why Allah says at the end of the story, (In this is a Lesson for whoever fears.) 

Allah begins by saying, (Has there come to you the story of Musa) meaning, have you heard of his story

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
From here onwards, arguments are drawn from the account of Moses (sws) and the Pharaoh. The arrogant Quraysh are indirectly warned and threatened of the Day of Judgement by citing this incident.

اِذۡ نَادٰٮهُ رَبُّهٗ بِالۡوَادِ الۡمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى​ۚ‏ 
( 16 )   When his Lord called to him in the sacred valley of Tuwa,
According to general opinion among the commentators the sacred valley of Tuwa means the sacred valley which was named Tuwa. But, besides this, two other meanings of it also have been given:

(1) The valley that was blessed and made sacred twice, for it was first made sacred when Allah spoke to Moses (peace be upon him) in it for the first time, and it was blessed and made sacred for the second time when the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) led the children of Israel out of Egypt and brought them into it.

(2) Called out to him in the sacred valley in the night, and this is according to the meaning of tuwa in the Arabic idiom.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
This is a reference to the incident which took place when Moses (sws) was returning from Madyan; in the valley of Ṭur, he had seen a fire burning and went towards it to fetch it or to find his way.

اِذۡهَبۡ اِلٰى فِرۡعَوۡنَ اِنَّهٗ طَغٰى ۖ‏
( 17 )   "Go to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed.

فَقُلۡ هَلۡ لَّكَ اِلٰٓى اَنۡ تَزَكّٰى ۙ‏ 
( 18 )   And say to him, 'Would you [be willing to] purify yourself
Here, one should understand a few things well:
(1) The dialogue that took place between the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and Allah Almighty at the time of appointing him to the office of Prophethood has been related at some places briefly and at others in full detail in the Quran as the occasion demanded. Here, brevity was the need, therefore, only a resume has been given. Full details are found in(Surah TaHa, Ayats 9-48); ( Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 10-17); (Surah An-Naml, Ayats 7-12), (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayats: 29-35).

(2) The rebellion of the Pharaoh referred to here relates to his transgressing the bounds of service and rebelling both against the Creator and against His creatures. As for his rebellion against the Creator, it is being mentioned a little below when he gathered his people together and proclaimed: I am your lord, the supreme. As against the creatures his rebellion was that he had divided his subjects into classes; he treated the weak classes tyrannically and had reduced his entire nation to slavery as has been mentioned in(Surah Al-Qasas, Ayat 4) and ( Surah Az- Zukhruf, Ayat 54).

(3) The instruction given to Moses (peace be upon him) was: Go, you and your brother Aaron, to Pharaoh for he has transgressed all bounds. Talk to him gently; maybe that he is convinced by admonition or is imbued with fear. (Surah TaHa, Ayat 44). One model of the gentle speech has been given in these verses, which shows what right method a preacher should adopt when preaching to a perverted man. Other models are given in (Surah TaHa, Ayats 49-52); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 23-28) and (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayat 37). These verses are of those in which Allah has taught the correct methods of preaching Islam in the Quran.

(4) The Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) had not been sent to Pharaoh only for the deliverance of the children of Israel as some people seem to think but the primary object of his appointment was to show Pharaoh and his people the right way, and the second object was that if he did not accept the right way, the children of Israel (who in fact were a Muslim people) should be taken out of his slavery and from Egypt. This thing becomes plain from these verses too, for there is no mention whatsoever in these of the deliverance of the children of Israel, but the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) has been commanded to present the message of the truth before Pharaoh, and this is confirmed by those verses also in which the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) has preached Islam as well as demanded freedom of the children of Israel, e.g. see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 104-105), (Surah TaHa, Ayats 47-52); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 16-17, 23-28). (For further explanation, see explanation of verse  76 of Surah 10. Younus).

(5) Here, to adopt purity means to adopt purity of belief, morals and deeds, or, in other words, to accept Islam. Ibn Zaid says: Wherever in the Quran the word tazakka (purity) has been use, it implies acceptance of Islam. As an example of this he has cited the following three verses: And this is the reward of him who adopts purity, i.e. accepts Islam; and what would make you know that he might adopt purity, i.e. becomes a Muslim (Surah Abasa, Ayat 3); And you would not be responsible if he did not adapt purity, i.e. did not become a Muslim (Surah Abasa, Ayat 7). (Ibn Jarir).

(6) That I may guide you to your Lord so that you may have fear (of Him) means: When you recognize your Lord and come to know that you are His slave, and not a free man, you will inevitably have fear of Him in your heart, for fear of God is the thing on which depends the right attitude of man in the world. Without the knowledge and fear of God no purity of the self can be possible.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
The purpose of the message and religion brought by the prophets of God is this purification (tazkiyah). The eloquent way in which this objective is stated needs consideration. 

Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes: … A little reflection on this sentence will show that it simultaneously has great affection and also great majesty which should be the hallmark of an envoy of God. The implication is that till then his attitude showed that there was little hope of any good from him; however, the Almighty was very gracious; even then if the Pharaoh showed inclination to mend his ways, he would be guided to the right path. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i Qur’an, vol. 9, 180)

وَاَهۡدِيَكَ اِلٰى رَبِّكَ فَتَخۡشٰى​ۚ‏ 
( 19 )   And let me guide you to your Lord so you would fear [Him]?'"

فَاَرٰٮهُ الۡاٰيَةَ الۡكُبۡرٰى ۖ‏ 
( 20 )   And he showed him the greatest sign,
The great sign: The turning of the staff into a serpent, as has been mentioned at several places in the Quran. Obviously there could be no greater sign than that a lifeless staff should turn into a living serpent right in front of the eyes of the people, that it should devour the artificial serpents produced by the magicians out of their staffs and cords, and when the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) should pick it up, it should become a walking stick again. This was proof that it was Allah, Lord of the worlds, Who had sent Moses (peace be upon him) as a Prophet.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
This means that Musa showed him -- along with this truthful call -- a strong evidence and a clear proof of the truthfulness of what he had come up with from Allah.

فَكَذَّبَ وَعَصٰى ۖ‏ 
( 21 )   But Pharaoh denied and disobeyed.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
Meaning, he (Fir`awn) rejected the truth and opposed what Musa commanded him with of obedience. So what happened with him was that his heart disbelieved, and Musa (i.e., his call) could not internally or externally affect it. Along with this, his knowledge that what Musa had come to him with was the truth, did not necessitate his being a believer in it. This is because recognition is the knowledge of the heart, and faith is its action. And it (faith) is to comply with the truth and submit to it. 

ثُمَّ اَدۡبَرَ يَسۡعٰى
( 22 )   Then he turned his back, striving.
According to the details given at other places in the Quran, he summoned skilful magicians from all over Egypt and made them produce serpents out of sticks and cords in front of the assembled people so that they were convinced that Moses (peace be upon him) was not a Prophet but a magician, and that the miracle worked by him of turning a staff into a serpent, could also be worked by other magicians. But this device of his recoiled upon himself and the defeated magicians themselves admitted that what Moses (peace be upon him) had displayed was no magic but a miracle.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
Meaning, in responding to the truth with falsehood. This was by his gathering the group of magicians in order to confront that which Musa had come up with of spectacular miracles.

فَحَشَرَ فَنَادٰى
( 23 )   And he gathered [his people] and called out
This proclamation of Pharaoh has been mentioned at several places in the Quran. On one occasion he said to the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him): If you took another one as a deity beside me, I would cast you in the prison. (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayat 29). On another occasion he had addressed his courtiers, saying: O chiefs, I do not know of any god of yours other than myself. (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayat 38). By this Pharaoh did not mean, nor could he ever mean, that he himself was the creator of the universe and he had made the world, nor that he denied the existence of Allah and claimed to be lord of the universe, nor that he regarded only himself as a deity of the people in the religious sense. In the Quran itself there is a clear testimony that as regards to religion he himself worshipped other gods. Once his courtiers said to him: Will you leave Moses (peace be upon him) and his people free to spread chaos in the land, and let them discard you and your deities? (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayat 127). And in the Quran itself this saying of the Pharaoh has also been cited: Had Moses (peace be upon him) been sent by Allah, why were not bracelets of gold sent down to him, or a company of angels as attendants? (Surah Az-Zukhruf, Ayat 53). Thus, in fact, he called himself a god and supreme deity not in the religious but in the political sense. What he meant was that he possessed the sovereign rights: no one beside him had the right to rule in his kingdom and there was no superior power whose orders could be enforced in the land. (For further explanation. see explanation of verse 104 of Surah 7. Al- Aaraf); verse 49 of Surah 20 Ta Ha); ( verse 29,31 of Surah 26. Ash- Shuara); ( verse 38 of Surah 28 Al-Qasas); ( verse 53 of Surah Az-Zukhruf).

فَقَالَ اَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الۡاَعۡلٰى ۖ‏ 
( 24 )   And said, "I am your most exalted lord."

فَاَخَذَهُ اللّٰهُ نَڪَالَ الۡاٰخِرَةِ وَالۡاُوۡلٰى ؕ‏ 
( 25 )   So Allah seized him in exemplary punishment for the last and the first [transgression].

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
(So Allah seized him with a punishing example for the Hereafter and the first (life). ) meaning, Allah avenged Himself against him with a severe vengeance, and He made an example and admonition of him for those rebellious people in the world who are like him.

(And on the Day of Resurrection, evil indeed is the gift gifted ﴿i.e., the curse (in this world) pursued by another curse (in this world) pursued by another curse (in the Hereafter)[11:99] 

This is as Allah says, (And We made them leaders inviting to the Fire: and on the Day of Resurrection, they will not be helped.) [28:41] Allah said; (In this is a lesson for whoever fears.)

اِنَّ فِىۡ ذٰلِكَ لَعِبۡرَةً لِّمَنۡ يَّخۡشٰىؕ
( 26 )   Indeed in that is a warning for whoever would fear [Allah].

Ruku Two [Verses 27-46]
Verses 27-33 Creation of man is not harder than the creation of heavens, earth and its contents

ءَاَنۡتُمۡ اَشَدُّ خَلۡقًا اَمِ السَّمَآءُ​ ؕ بَنٰٮهَا
( 27 )   Are you a more difficult creation or is the heaven? Allah constructed it.
Now arguments are being given for the possibility of Resurrection and life after death and their being the very demand and requirement of wisdom.

Here, creation implies the recreation of men, and the heaven the entire firmament which contains countless stars and planets, and innumerable solar systems and galaxies, means to say: You think that your resurrection after death is something extremely improbable and you express wonder saying: How is it possible that when our very bones will have decayed and become rotten the scattered particles of our bodies will be reassembled and made living once again. But have you ever also considered whether the great universe is harder to create or your own re-creation in the form in which you were created in the first instance. The God Who created you in the first instance cannot be powerless to create you once again. This same argument for life after death has been given at several places in the Quran. For example, in Surah Ya Seen it has been said: Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like of them (again). Why not, when He is the skillful Creator. (verse 81). And in Surah Al-Momin it has been said: Surely the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater task than the creation of man, but most people do not know. (verse 57).

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
in refutation of the claim rejecting resurrection due to the renewal of creation after its original state, Allah says; (Are you) `O people' (more difficult to create or is the heaven...) meaning, `rather the heaven is more difficult to create than you.' 

As Allah said; (the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of mankind;) (40:57) And His saying; (Is not the One Who created the heavens and the earth, capable of creating the similar to them. Yes, indeed! He is the Supreme Creator, the All-Knowing.) (36:81) 

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
From here till verse 33, arguments are presented from the signs and testimonies of the world around man.

رَفَعَ سَمۡكَهَا فَسَوَّٮهَا ۙ‏ 
( 28 )   He raised its ceiling and proportioned it.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir: He made it a lofty structure, vast in its space, with equal sides, and adorned with stars at night and in the darkness.

وَ اَغۡطَشَ لَيۡلَهَا وَاَخۡرَجَ ضُحٰٮهَا
( 29 )   And He darkened its night and extracted its brightness.
The night and the day have been attributed to the heaven, for the night falls when the sun of the heavens sets and the day dawns when it rises. The word cover has been used for the night in the sense that after the sun has set the darkness of the night so spreads over the earth as though it has covered it from above by a curtain.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
He made its night dark and extremely black, and its day bright, luminous, shining and clear. Ibn `Abbas said, "He did Aghtasha of its night means that He made it dark.'' Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and a large group have said this as well. 

In reference to Allah's statement, (And He brings out its forenoon.) meaning, He illuminated its day.

وَالۡاَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ ذٰلِكَ دَحٰٮهَا ؕ‏ 
( 30 )   And after that He spread the earth.
After that He spread out the earth, does not mean that Allah created the earth after the creation of the heavens, but it is a style of expression just like our saying after making mention of something: Then this is noteworthy. The object is not to express the sequence of occurrence between the two things but to draw attention from the first to the second thing although both may exist together. Several instances of this style are found in the Quran, e.g. in Surah Al-Qalam it is said: (He is) oppressive, and after that, ignoble by birth. This does not mean that first he became oppressive and then he turned ignoble by birth, but it means: He is oppressive, and above all, ignoble by birth. Likewise, in Surah Al-Balad it is said: Should free a slave, then be of those who believe. This also does not mean that first he should act righteously and then believe, but that along with doing righteous deeds he should also be characterized by belief. Here, one should also understand that at some places in the Quran the creation of the earth has been mentioned first and then the creation of the heavens, as in (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 29), and at others the creation of the heavens has been mentioned first and then of the earth, as in these verses. There is, in fact, no contradiction in this. At no place the object is to tell what was created first and what afterwards, but wherever the context requires that the excellences of the power of Allah be made prominent, the heavens have been mentioned first and then the earth, and where the context requires that the people be made to appreciate and acknowledge the blessings that they are benefiting by on the earth, the mention of the earth has been made before that of the heavens. (For further explanation, see( explanation of verse 10-11 of Surah 41. Ha Mim As-Sajdah).

اَخۡرَجَ مِنۡهَا مَآءَهَا وَمَرۡعٰٮهَا
( 31 )   He extracted from it its water and its pasture,
Pasture, here does not only imply pasture and fodder for the animals but all kinds of herbal produce suitable for consumption both by man and by animal. An example of the use of raat, which is generally used in Arabic for the grazing animals, is found in (Surah Yusuf, Ayat 12), signifying that this word is sometimes used for man also. The brothers of Joseph said to their father: Send Joseph with us tomorrow that he may freely graze and enjoy sport. Here, the word grace (raat) for the child has been used in the meaning that he may move about freely in the jungle and pluck and eat fruit.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
It already has been mentioned previously in Surat Ha Mim As-Sajdah that the earth was created before the heaven was created, but it was only spread out after the creation of the heaven. This means that He brought out what was in it with a forceful action. This is the meaning of what was said by Ibn `Abbas and others, and it was the explanation preferred by Ibn Jarir.

وَالۡجِبَالَ اَرۡسٰٮهَا ۙ‏ 
( 32 )   And the mountains He set firmly

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
He settled them, made them firm, and established them in their places. And He is the Most Wise, the All-Knowing. He is Most Kind to His creation, Most Merciful. Allah then says,

مَتَاعًا لَّـكُمۡ وَلِاَنۡعَامِكُمۡؕ‏ 
( 33 )   As provision for you and your grazing livestock.
In these verses arguments have been given for the Resurrection and life after death from two aspects: First, that it is not at all difficult to establish these for the power of that God Who has made this vast and huge universe with such wonderful balance and this earth with such provisions. Second, that the pointers to the perfect wisdom of Allah which are clearly visible in the universe and the earth, point out that nothing is happening here purposelessly. The balance that exists between countless stars and planets and galaxies in the heavens, testifies that all this has not happened haphazardly, but there is a well thought-out plan working behind it. The regular alternation of the night and day is an evidence that this system has been established with supreme wisdom and knowledge for making the earth a home and place of settlement. On this very earth are found regions where the alternation of the night and day takes place within 24 hours and also those regions where there are longer days and longer nights. A very large part of the earth’s population lives in the first kind of the regions. Then as the days and nights go on becoming longer and longer, life goes on becoming harder and harder and population thinner and thinner. So much so that the regions where there are six-month-long days and six-month-long nights, are not at all fit for human settlement. Arranging both these types of the land on this very earth Allah has provided the evidence that this regular order of the alternation of night and day has not come about accidentally but has been brought about with great wisdom precisely in accordance with a scheme to make the earth a place fit for human settlement. Likewise, spreading out the earth so that it becomes a fit place to live in, providing in it that water which should be palatable for man and animal and a cause of growth for vegetation, setting in it mountains and creating all those things which may become a means of life for both man and animal. All these are a manifest sign that they are not chance happenings of the purposeless works of a care-free person but each one of these has been arranged purposefully by a Supreme, Wise Being. Now every sensible and intelligent man can consider for himself whether the necessity and occurrence of the Hereafter is the requirement of wisdom or its negation. The person who in spite of seeing all this says that there is no Hereafter, in fact, says that everything in the universe is happening wisely and purposefully, but only the creation of man on the earth as a being endowed with sense and power is meaningless and foolish. For there could be nothing more purposeless than delegating to man vast powers of appropriation in the earth and providing him an opportunity to do good as well as evil deeds but then failing to ever subject him to accountability.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
He spread out the earth, caused its springs to gush forth, brought forth its hidden benefits, caused its rivers to flow, and caused its vegetation, trees, and fruits to grow. He also made its mountains firm so that it (the earth) would be calmly settled with its dwellers, and He stabilized its dwelling places. All of this is a means of beneficial enjoyment for His creatures (mankind) providing them of what cattle they need, which they eat and ride upon. He has granted them these beneficial things for the period that they need them, in this worldly abode, until the end of time and the expiration of this life.

Ruku Two: Verses 34-46 Punishment and reward on the day of judgement 
In conclusion, the question of the disbelievers of Makkah as to when Resurrection will take place, has been answered. They asked the Holy Prophet this question over and over again. In reply it has been said that the knowledge of the time of its occurrence rests with Allah alone. The Messenger is there only to give the warning that it will certainly come. Now whoever wishes may mend his ways, fearing its coming, and whoever wishes may behave and conduct himself as he likes, fearless of its coming. When the appointed time comes, those very people who loved the life of this world and regarded its pleasures as the only object of life, would feel that they had stayed in the world only for an hour or so. Then they will realize how utterly they had ruined their future for ever for the sake of the short lived pleasures of the world.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
It is evident from the phases of creation mentioned in the Qur’an that first the earth assumed a structured form and then the sky was finalized. At the very end, the earth was made conducive to life. The verse under discussion refers to this phase.

The implication is that people should observe these signs and testimonies and reflect why God has made such elaborate arrangements to nourish and nurture them? Is it merely so that they can eat and drink and then pass away? Do they really think that this world is a place that has been made for the entertainment of God? They should reflect on what a strange opinion they have formed of the Creator whose wisdom is evident from every particle of this universe.

فَاِذَا جَآءَتِ الطَّآمَّۃُ الۡکُبۡرٰی
( 34 )   But when there comes the greatest Overwhelming Calamity -
This implies the Resurrection for which the words at- Taammat alkubra have been used. Taammah by itself is a grievous calamity which afflicts everybody. Then it has been further qualified by the word kubra (great), which shows that the mere word taammah is not enough to describe fully its intensity and severity.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
 This refers to the Day of Judgement. This has been said by Ibn `Abbas. It has been called this because it will overcome every matter. It will be frightful and horrifying. As Allah says, (And the Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.) (54:46)

یَوۡمَ یَتَذَکَّرُ الۡاِنۡسَانُ مَا سَعٰی
( 35 )   The Day when man will remember that for which he strove,
That is, when man will see that the same Day of accountability of which he was being foretold in the world, has come, he will start remembering each one of his misdeeds done in the world even before his records are handed over to him. Some people experience this even in the world. If at some time they come across a dangerous situation suddenly when death seems to be staring them in the face, their whole life-film flashes across their mind’s eye all at once.

وَ بُرِّزَتِ الۡجَحِیۡمُ لِمَنۡ یَّرٰی
( 36 )   And Hellfire will be exposed for [all] those who see -
It will become apparent for the onlookers, so the people will see it with their own eyes.

فَاَمَّا مَنۡ طَغٰی
( 37 )   So as for he who transgressed
Meaning, who rebels and behaves arrogantly.

وَ اٰثَرَ الۡحَیٰوۃَ الدُّنۡیَا
( 38 )   And preferred the life of the world,
He who gives it precedence over the matters of his religion and his Hereafter.

فَاِنَّ الۡجَحِیۡمَ ہِیَ الۡمَاۡوٰی
( 39 )   Then indeed, Hellfire will be [his] refuge.
Meaning, his final destination will be Hell, his food will be from the tree of Zaqqum, and his drink will be from Hamim.

وَ اَمَّا مَنۡ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّہٖ وَ نَہَی النَّفۡسَ عَنِ الۡہَوٰی
( 40 )   But as for he who feared the position of his Lord and prevented the soul from [unlawful] inclination,

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
Meaning, he fears the standing before Allah, he fears Allah's judgement of him, he prevents his soul from following its desires, and he compels it to obey its Master.

فَاِنَّ الۡجَنَّۃَ ہِیَ الۡمَاۡوٰی
( 41 )   Then indeed, Paradise will be [his] refuge.
Here, in a few words, it has been told briefly what shall be the criterion of the final judgment in the Hereafter. One kind of the conduct of life in the world is that transgressing all bounds of service man should rebel against his God and should make up his mind that he would seek only the benefits and pleasures of this world in whatever way they could be sought and achieved. The other kind of conduct is that while man passes life in the world he should constantly keep in view the truth that ultimately one day he has to stand before his Lord, and should refrain from fulfilling the evil desires of the self only for the fear that if he earned an unlawful benefit in obedience to his self, or enjoyed an evil pleasure, what answer he would give to his Lord. The criterion of the judgment in the Hereafter will be which of the two kinds of conduct he adopted in the world. If he had adopted the first kind of conduct, his permanent abode would be Hell, and if he had adopted the second kind of conduct, his permanent home would be Paradise.

یَسۡـَٔلُوۡنَکَ عَنِ السَّاعَۃِ اَیَّانَ مُرۡسٰہَا
( 42 )   They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the Hour: when is its arrival?
The disbelievers of Makkah asked this question of the Prophet (peace be upon him) over and over again. By this they did not mean to know the time and date of the coming of Resurrection but to mock it. (For further explanation, see explanation of verse 25 of Surah 67 Al-Mulk).

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
(Verses 42-44: They ask you about the Hour -- when will be its appointed time What do you have to mention of it. To your Lord it is limited.) meaning, its knowledge is not with you, nor with any creature. Rather the knowledge of it is with Allah. He is the One Who knows the exact time of its occurrence.

(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth. It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden. They ask you as if you have a good knowledge of it. Say: "The knowledge thereof is with Allah.'') (7:187)

فِیۡمَ اَنۡتَ مِنۡ ذِکۡرٰىہَا 
( 43 )   In what [position] are you that you should mention it?

اِلٰی رَبِّکَ مُنۡتَہٰىہَا 
( 44 )   To your Lord is its finality.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
Thus, when Jibril asked the Messenger of Allah about the time of the last Hour he said, (The one questioned about it knows no more than the questioner.)

اِنَّمَاۤ اَنۡتَ مُنۡذِرُ مَنۡ یَّخۡشٰہَا
( 45 )   You are only a warner for those who fear it.
This we also have explained in (verse 25 of Surah 67 Al-Mulk ). As for the words “you are only a Warner to him who fears it”, they do not mean that it is not your duty to warn those who do not fear, but it means: Your warning will benefit only him who fears the coming of that Day.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
meaning, `I sent you to warn mankind and caution them to beware of the torment and punishment of Allah. So whoever fears Allah, fears standing before Him, and His threat, then he will follow you, and thus be successful and victorious. However, whoever denies you and opposes you, then he will only suffer loss and failure.'

کَاَنَّہُمۡ یَوۡمَ یَرَوۡنَہَا لَمۡ یَلۡبَثُوۡۤا اِلَّا عَشِیَّۃً اَوۡ ضُحٰہَا
( 46 )   It will be, on the Day they see it, as though they had not remained [in the world] except for an afternoon or a morning thereof.
This theme has occurred at several places in the Quran and been explained in the following notes. For it, see explanation of verses (45 of Surah 10. Younus); (52 of Surah 17. Bani Israil); (103 of 20. Surah Ta Ha); (114 of 23 Surah Al-Mominoon); (55 of Surah 30 Ar-Room).

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
when they stand up from their graves to go to the place of Gathering, they will feel that the period of the worldy life was short, it will seem to them that it was only the afternoon of one day. 

Juwaybir reported from Ad-Dahhak from Ibn `Abbas: (The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an (`Ashiyyah) afternoon or its (Duha) morning.) "As for `Ashiyyah, it is the time between noon until the setting of the sun.

(Or its (Duha) morning) what is between sunrise and midday (noon).'' Qatadah said, "This refers to the time period of the worldly life in the eyes of the people when they see the Hereafter.'' 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at. And to Allah belongs all praise and thanks.

You may now like to listen to the tafsir / exegesis of the surah by eminent scholar and linguist Nouman Ali Khan:

You may refer to our Reference Page "114 Chapters (Sūrahs) of the Holy Qur'an" for translation, explanation and exegesis of other chapters of the Qur'an.

You may also refer to our Reference Pages for knowing more about Islam and Quran.
Photo | References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 67 | 8 | 9 | 10 |
Reading the Holy Quran should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully.

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Holy Qur'an from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that:
  • The plain translation has been taken from the Holy Quran officially published by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]
  • The exegesis of the chapters of the Holy Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.  [2]
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided by [2], additional input has been interjected from following sources: 
In addition the references of  other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites.

If you like Islam: My Ultimate Decision, and to keep yourself updated on all our latest posts to know more about Islam, follow us on Facebook

Please share this page to your friends and family members through Facebook, WhatsApp or any means on Social Media so that they can also be benefited by it and better understand Islam and the Holy Qur'an - Insha Allah (Allah Willing) you shall be blessed with the best of both worlds.

Twitter Delicious Facebook Digg Stumbleupon Favorites More