Sunday 26 March 2023

He who Willfully slays a believer his reward is Hell

Intolerance to others' viewpoint is becoming pronounced, especially the politically motivated murders or that of journalists who try to stand for truth and try to expose the ugly face of mafia. While for non-Muslims, the unabated killing may not matter mcuh, but Islam strictly forbids a believer to intentionally and willfully slaying a believing brother.

We share the 93rd verse of Surah 4. An Nisa which is a follow up of verses which lay down the penalty of causing harm or taking life of beleiver unintentionally. But one slays believers intentionally, knowing fully its consequences, then this is something that Allah likes the least and promises His wrath to befall on murderers. Despite presence of such verses, we still see killing of innocent people at the hands of heatless people, government agencies just to silence those who take some courage to stand up for the rights of general people. This verse is also applicable for the landlords who have made their lands their personal courts and kill and harm at will their tenants and workers if they try to raise a voice against their cruelty.

وَمَنۡ يَّقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَآؤُهٗ جَهَـنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيۡهَا وَغَضِبَ اللّٰهُ عَلَيۡهِ وَلَعَنَهٗ وَاَعَدَّ لَهٗ عَذَابًا عَظِيۡمًا‏  
(4:93) And he who slays a believer willfully his reward is Hell, where he will abide. Allah's wrath is against him and He has cast His curse upon him, and has prepared for him a great chastisement.

Tafsir Ibn-Kathir
(وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً and whoever kills a believer intentionally,) This Ayah carries a stern warning and promise for those who commit so grave a sin that it is mentioned along with Shirk in several Ayat of Allah's Book. 

There are many Ayat and Hadiths that prohibit murder. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said, (Blood offenses are the first disputes to be judged between the people on the Day of Resurrection. ) 
In a Hadith that Abu Dawud recorded, `Ubadah bin As-Samit states that the Messenger of Allah said, (The believer will remain unburdened in righteousness as long as he does not shed prohibited blood. When he sheds forbidden blood, he will become burdened.) 
Another Hadith, states, (The destruction of this earthly life is less significant before Allah than killing a Muslim man (or woman).)
However, here the question arises, "Will the Repentance of those who Commit Intentional Murder, be Accepted."
Ibn `Abbas held the view that the repentance of one who intentionally murders a believer, will not be accepted. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Jubayr said, "The people of knowledge of Al-Kufah differed on this subject, I traveled to Ibn `Abbas to ask him about it. He said, `This Ayah, (And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell) was the last revealed ﴿on this subject﴾ and nothing abrogated it.''' Muslim and An-Nasa'i also recorded it. 
However, the majority of scholars of the earlier and later generations said that the killer's repentance can be accepted. If he repents, and goes back to Allah humbly, submissively, and performing righteous deeds, then Allah will change his evil deeds into good deeds and compensate the deceased for his loss by rewarding him for his suffering. 

Allah said, (and those who invoke not any other god along with Allah), until, (Except those who repent and believe, and do righteous deeds). The Ayah we just mentioned should not be considered abrogated or only applicable to the disbelievers ﴿who become Muslim﴾, for this contradicts the general, encompassing indications of the Ayah and requires evidence to support it. Allah knows best. 

Allah said, (Say: "O My servants who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah). This Ayah is general, covering all types of sins, including Kufr, Shirk, doubt, hypocrisy, murder, sin, and so forth. Therefore, everyone who repents sincerely from any of these errors, then Allah will forgive him. 

Allah said,(Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills). This Ayah is general and includes every sin except Shirk, and it has been mentioned in this Surah, both after this Ayah and before it, in order to encourage hope in Allah, and Allah knows best. It is confirmed in the Two Sahihs, that an Israeli killed one hundred people then he asked a scholar, "Is it possible for me to repent'' So he replied, "What is there that would prevent you from repentance'' So he told him to go to another land where Allah was worshipped. He began to emigrate to it but died on the way, and the angel of mercy was the one to take him. Although this Hadith is about an Israeli, it is even more suitable for the Muslim community that their repentance be accepted. Indeed, Allah relieved Muslims from the burdens and restrictions that were placed on the Jews, and He sent our Prophet with the easy Hanifiyyah way (Islamic Monotheism). 

As for the honorable Ayah, (وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً And whoever kills a believer intentionally), Abu Hurayrah and several among the Salaf said that this is his punishment, if Allah decides to punish him. And this is the case with every threat that is issued for every sin. For instance, there could be good deeds that this person has done that would prevent him from being punished for that, and Allah knows best. Even if the murderer inevitably enters the Fire -- as Ibn `Abbas stated because his repentance was not accepted, or he did not have good deeds to save him, he will not remain there for eternity, but only for a long time. 

There are Mutawatir Hadiths stating that the Messenger of Allah said, (Whoever has the least speck of faith in his heart shall ultimately depart the Fire.)

Yusuf Ali Explanation:  
What is mentioned here is the punishment in the Hereafter. The legal consequences, enforceable by human society, are mentioned in ii. 178, under the rules of Qisas. That is, a life should be taken for a life destroyed, but this should be on a scale of equality: a single murderer should not commit a whole tribe to a perpetual blood-feud, as in the days of ignorance. But if the heirs of the man slain accept reasonable compensation, this should be accepted, and the taking of a life for a life should be put a stop to. This course leads to the saving of life, and is commanded to men of understanding.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Explanation:
The punishment of intentionally murdering someone mentioned here is precisely the same as the one stated in the Qur’ān for the most nefarious rejecters of the truth. Imām Amīn Aḥsan Iṣlāḥī writes:
… In order to understand the reason for the severity of this punishment, it should be kept in consideration that the greatest right a Muslim has over another Muslim is sanctity of his life. If a Muslim takes the life of another Muslim, then this would mean that he has violated the greatest human right imposed on him which cannot even be atoned for. This is because the person whose right he has violated is no longer in this world and to expiate a violated human right it is essential to make up for the loss inflicted. Then, another aspect is also very important in this regard: this is the case of killing a Muslim who because of being trapped in a dār al-kufr or a dār al-ḥarb was divested of the protection of the sharī‘ah which a Muslim living in a dār al-islām has. If he had any hope for his religion and for himself, it was from the Muslims. If a Muslim now kills him and that too intentionally and at a place where he does not enjoy the protection of Islamic law, then obviously no one can be regarded to be more oppressed than such a slain person and no one can be regarded to be more oppressive than the slayer. (Amīn Aḥsan Iṣlāḥī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 361)
Tafsir Qur'an Wiki:
All the foregoing applies to accidental killing. The deliberate murder of a believer is a crime too horrendous to be committed by anyone who has any trace of faith in his heart. It cannot be compensated for by any indemnity or by setting slaves free. The punishment in this case is exacted by God Himself: “He who deliberately kills a believer, his punishment is hell, therein to abide permanently. God will be angry with him, and will reject him, and will prepare for him a dreadful suffering.” (Verse 93)
It is a crime of murder wherein the victim is not merely the human being who is killed without any justification whatsoever. It also kills the noble and dearly cherished tie established by God between one Muslim and another. It is a crime against the very idea of believing in God. For this reason, it is often associated with denying faith altogether. Some scholars of high standing including Ibn `Abbās, the Prophet’s cousin, are of the opinion that no repentance of such a crime is acceptable. Other scholars who disagree, rely for their argument on the Qur’ānic verse which states: “God does not forgive that partners should be associated with Him, but He forgives any lesser sin to whomever he wills.” (Verse 116) These latter scholars say that a deliberate murderer of a Muslim may still hope for God’s Forgiveness. They explain the statement that such a killer shall abide permanently in hell as signifying that hell will be his abode for a very long time.

Now you may listen to the following short clipped video to explanation of the aforesaid Ayat by eminent Muslim scholar Nouman Ali Khan:
May Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى‎) help us understand Qur'ān and follow the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, which is embodiment of commandments of Allah contained in the Qur'ān. May Allah help us to be like the ones He loves and let our lives be lived helping others and not making others' lives miserable or unlivable. May all our wrong doings, whether intentional or unintentional, be forgiven before the angel of death knocks on our door. 
وَمَا عَلَيۡنَاۤ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِيۡنُ‏ 
(36:17) and our duty is no more than to clearly convey the Message.”
That is Our duty is only to convey to you the message that Allah has entrusted us with. Then it is for you to accept it or reject it. We have not been made responsible for making you accept it forcibly, and if you do not accept it, we shall not be seized in consequence of your disbelief, you will yourselves be answerable for your actions on Day of Resurrection.

Reading the Qur'ān should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully. It will also help the Muslims to have grasp over social issues and their answers discussed in the Qur'an and other matter related to inter faith so that they are able to discuss issues with non-Muslims with authority based on refences from Qur'an.

May Allah forgive me if my posts ever imply a piety far greater than I possess. I am most in need of guidance.

Note: When we mention God in our posts, we mean One True God, we call Allah in Islam, with no associates. Allah is the Sole Creator of all things, and that Allah is all-powerful and all-knowing. Allah has no offspring, no race, no gender, no body, and is unaffected by the characteristics of human life.

For more Selected Verses, please refer to our reference page: Selected Verses from the Qur'anYou may also refer to our Reference Pages  and Understanding Al Qur'an for knowing more about Islam and Qur'ān.
Photo | Tafsir References: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

An effort has been made to gather explanation / exegesis of the surahs of the Qur'ān from authentic sources and then present a least possible condensed explanation of the surah. In that the exegesis of the chapters of the Quran is mainly based on the "Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an" by one of the most enlightened scholars of the Muslim World Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.  
In order to augment and add more explanation as already provided, additional input has been interjected from the following sources: 
  • Tafsir Ibn Khatir
  • Muhammad Asad Translation
  • Yusuf Ali Translation
  • Translation Javed Ahmad Ghamidi / Al Mawrid
  • Qur'an Wiki
  • Verse by Verse Qur'an Study Circle
  • Towards Understanding the Quran
In addition, references of other sources which have been explored have also been given above. Those desirous of detailed explanations and tafsir (exegesis), may refer to these sites.

If you like Islam: My Ultimate Decision, and to keep yourself updated on all our latest posts to know more about Islam, follow us on Facebook

Please share this page to your friends and family members through Facebook, WhatsApp or any means on Social Media so that they can also be benefited by it and better understand Islam and the Qur'ān - Insha Allah (Allah Willing) you shall be blessed with the best of both worlds.


Post a Comment

Twitter Delicious Facebook Digg Stumbleupon Favorites More