Showing posts with label Women in Islam. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Women in Islam. Show all posts

Tuesday 19 March 2024

The Benevolent treatment of daughters would protect parents against Hell-Fire (Hadith Prophet Muhammad ﷺ)

Women in Islam assume a very elevated status and at many a places in Qur'an, believers have been commanded to be extra courteous and respectful towards women. Whereas many critics of Islam accuse Islam for being unjust to women and restricting their independence confining them to homes and forcing them to drape themselves in Hijab. There is  a long list of such accusation about women and their ill treatment. Such negative attitude stems from ignorance or base propaganda. Whereas more and more non-Muslims are entering fold of Islam, a majority of which is women. Non-Muslim women get attracted to Islam for the very elevated status Islam accords to women.

There is two complete chapters, namely Surah 4. An Nisa (The Women) and Surah 58. Al Mujadilah (The Pleading Woman) dedicated to women and their special status in Islam. In times when Islam was taking its roots among the pagans of Arabia, there was an abhorring tradition of burying the newly born baby girls alive as the pagans of Arabia considered them a too lowly creature and against their honour. This tradition was strictly abolished upon proclamation of Islam. We have already published a post based on the inhuman treatment to newly born baby girls. Please read our post: When the girl-child buried alive shall be asked for what offence was she killed.

With this premise in the backdrop, let us today share a n important Hadith of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in which he specifically talks on how the Benevolent treatment of daughters would protect parents against Hell-Fire. 

This Hadith is quoted in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim: Book 45 The Book of Virtue, Enjoining Good Manners, and Joining of the Ties of Kinship - كتاب البر والصلة والآداب / Chapter # 46 The Virtue Of Treating Daughters Well / باب فَضْلِ الإِحْسَانِ إِلَى الْبَنَاتِ ‏‏‏) as Hadith number # 2629 as under:

'A'isha, the wife of Allah's Apostle (ﷺ), said:

A woman came to me along with her two daughters. She asked me for (charity) but she found nothing with me except one date, so I gave her that. She accepted it and then divided it between her two daughters and herself ate nothing out of that. She then got up and went out, and so did her two daughters. (In the meanwhile) Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) visited me and I narrated to him her story. Thereupon Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) said: He who is involved (in the responsibility) of (bringing up) daughters, and he accords benevolent treatment towards them, there would be protection for him against Hell-Fire.

Arabic Text:
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ قُهْزَاذَ، حَدَّثَنَا سَلَمَةُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ حَزْمٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، ح
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ بَهْرَامَ، وَأَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ - وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُمَا - قَالاَ أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ، أَنَّأَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَتْ جَاءَتْنِي امْرَأَةٌ وَمَعَهَا ابْنَتَانِ لَهَا فَسَأَلَتْنِي فَلَمْ تَجِدْ عِنْدِي شَيْئًا غَيْرَ تَمْرَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ فَأَعْطَيْتُهَا إِيَّاهَا فَأَخَذَتْهَا فَقَسَمَتْهَا بَيْنَ ابْنَتَيْهَا وَلَمْ تَأْكُلْ مِنْهَا شَيْئًا ثُمَّ قَامَتْ فَخَرَجَتْ وَابْنَتَاهَا فَدَخَلَ عَلَىَّ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَحَدَّثْتُهُ حَدِيثَهَا فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنِ ابْتُلِيَ مِنَ الْبَنَاتِ بِشَىْءٍ فَأَحْسَنَ إِلَيْهِنَّ كُنَّ لَهُ سِتْرًا مِنَ 
النَّارِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

This is how Islam accords a very high status for the parents of daughters for on the Day of Judgment,  lovingly, well groomed and raised daughters will become a shield for their parents against the fire of Hell. Let all those parents blessed with daughters be mindful of the blessings of Allah they have been blessed with in the form of their daughters. While sons too are a blessing of Allah, nonetheless, the raising of daughters take precedence over them for they are guests in their parent's' house and would leave one day after marriage. A better trained girl when becomes a mother, she continues to transform the preferential treatment meted out to her by her parents so that her daughters to learn the same and the cycle should continue.

May Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى‎) help us understand Qur'ān and follow the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, which is embodiment of commandments of Allah contained in the Qur'ān. May Allah help us to be like the ones He loves and let our lives be lived helping others and not making others' lives miserable or unlivable. May all our wrong doings, whether intentional or unintentional, be forgiven before the angel of death knocks on our door. 
وَمَا عَلَيۡنَاۤ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِيۡنُ‏ 
(36:17) and our duty is no more than to clearly convey the Message.”
That is Our duty is only to convey to you the message that Allah has entrusted us with. Then it is for you to accept it or reject it. We have not been made responsible for making you accept it forcibly, and if you do not accept it, we shall not be seized in consequence of your disbelief, you will yourselves be answerable for your actions on Day of Resurrection.

May Allah forgive me if my posts ever imply a piety far greater than I possess. I am most in need of guidance.

Reading the Qur'ān should be a daily obligation of a Muslim - Reading it with translation will make it meaningful. But reading its Exegesis / Tafsir will make you understand it fully. It will also help the Muslims to have grasp over social issues and their answers discussed in the Qur'an and other matter related to inter faith so that they are able to discuss issues with non-Muslims with authority based on refences from Qur'an.

Note: When we mention God in our posts, we mean One True God, we call Allah in Islam, with no associates. Allah is the Sole Creator of all things, and that Allah is all-powerful and all-knowing. Allah has no offspring, no race, no gender, no body, and is unaffected by the characteristics of human life.

Please refer to our reference page: Hadiths of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ related to Muslim Women  for more Hadiths on the status of women in Islam.

You may also refer our reference page: Collections of Hadiths of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ about Rewards and Sunnah and Hadith of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to know more about Hadiths and Sunnah of Prophet of Allah. You may also refer to our Reference Pages for knowing more about Islam and Qur'ān.

Disclaimer: The material for this post has been collected from the references as given below. If anyone differs with the material contained in this post, one may consult the references and their authors.  If someone has more material about the subject, he/she is most welcome to share in the comments box to make the post all encompassing.

If you like Islam: My Ultimate Decision, and to keep yourself updated on all our latest posts to know more about Islam, follow us on Facebook. You may also refer to our Facebook  Group Islam: The Ultimate Truth for more on Islam and Da'wah.

Please share this page to your friends and family members through Facebook, WhatsApp or any means on social media so that they can also be benefited by it and better understand Islam and the Qur'ān - Insha Allah (Allah Willing) you shall be blessed with the best of both worlds.

Sunday 22 May 2022

Women in Islam: World's first University founded by a Muslim Woman

Whenever the mention of women in Islam comes, many non Muslims take them to be illiterate, oppressed hidden behind the veil or hijab, cut from the modern day developments and streams of education. But the opposite is true. Islam emphasizes education of male and female both as both have a specific role to play for being an important and useful part of the society. While there are many names that are attributed to Muslim women for their contribution to every field of education, science and social development, it may come as surprise to many, both Muslims and non Muslims that the first ever university in the world was established by a Muslim women in Morocco in 9th century AD.

This great Muslim woman was Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya Al-Qurashiya (فاطمة بنت محمد الفهرية القرشية‎)  who established a masjid in the city of Fez in present day Morocco. 
Fatima al-Fihri was born in 800 A.D. She was the daughter of Mohammed Bnou Abdullah al-Fihri - a rich merchant who settled in Fez with his family during the reign of Idris II.
Fatima was a strong believer. When she inherited a huge amount of money at the time her father and her husband died, she decided to use it to build a mosque which her Muslim community in Fez urgently needed, large enough to fit an ever-growing number of believers. Herself a highly educated woman, her dream was to do something for the educational uplift of her area. Thus she conceived the idea of building a mosque, which was urgently needed for the people of her community which was ever increasing. She supervised the building process herself and almost the entire inherited money was consumed in her project that was later to become the oldest university of the world. 

Initially a madrassa (school) was established withe masjid which later developed into a university in 895 CE in the city of Fez.  From the 10th century the famous mosque of al-Qarawiyyin became the first religious institute and the largest Arab university of North Africa. It attracted a lot of students and renowned scientists. [1]

They date al-Qarawiyyin's transformation from a madrasa into a university to its modern reorganization in 1963. Some sources, such as UNESCO and the Guinness World Records, cite al-Qarawiyyin as the oldest university or oldest continually operating higher learning institution in the world. Education at the University of al-Qarawiyyin concentrates on the Islamic religious and legal sciences with a heavy emphasis on, and particular strengths in, Classical Arabic grammar/linguistics and Maliki Sharia, though lessons on non-Islamic subjects are also offered to students. [2]
The University of Al Quaraouiyine became a state university in 1963 and now awards degrees in Islamic, religious and legal sciences with an emphasis on classical Arabic grammar and linguistics and law.  Interestingly, teaching is still delivered in a very traditional manner, whereby students are seated in a semi-circle around a Sheikh (Islamic scholar), who prompts them to read sections of particular texts, asks them questions on aspects of grammar, law, or interpretation, and explains difficult points. [3]
As per Wikipedia, Al-Qarawiyyin also compiled a large selection of manuscripts that were kept at a library founded by the Marinid sultan Abu Inan Faris in 1349. The collection housed numerous works from the Maghreb, al-Andalus, and the Middle East. Part of the collection was gathered decades earlier by Sultan Abu Yusuf Ya'qub (ruled 1258–1286), who persuaded Sancho IV of Castile to hand over a number of works from the libraries of Seville, Cordoba, Almeria, Granada, and Malaga in al-Andalus/Spain. Abu Yusuf initially housed these in the nearby Saffarin Madrasa (which he had recently built), but later moved them to al-Qarawiyyin. Among the most precious manuscripts currently housed in the library are volumes from the Al-Muwatta of Malik written on gazelle parchment, a copy of the Sirat by Ibn Ishaq, a 9th-century Quran manuscript (also written on gazelle parchment), a copy of the Quran given by Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur in 1602, a copy of Ibn Rushd's Al-Bayan Wa-al-Tahsil wa-al-Tawjih (a commentary on Maliki fiqh) dating from 1320, and the original copy of Ibn Khaldun's book Al-'Ibar (including the Muqaddimah) gifted by the author in 1396.

Fatima al-Fihri today is considered a saint and she is much respected among the believers especially in Fez. In 2017, a prize was created in Tunisia in her honor. It rewards initiatives which encourage access to training and professional responsibilities for women. Furthermore, an academic program and a scholarship given to students from Europe and North Africa pay tribute to Fatima al-Fihri.

Please watch an informative video on the evolution and development of the university:
Note: We have only provided the bare minimum information on Fatima al-Fihri and her pursuits to establish the masjid and later turned into a university. For detailed information, please refer to reference sources given below, specially the Wikipedia.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in the reference material contained in Islam: My Ultimate Decision are that of the Islamic scholars / websites. We have shared these view as added information for better understanding of Islam. The reader may or may not agree with the views owing to their own perception / school of thought being followed. If any one differs with the material contained in this blog, one may consult the references and their authors.  If someone has more material about the subject, he/she is most welcome to share in the comments box to make our posts all encompassing / comprehensive.

You may also refer to our reference page on Women in Islam and other Reference Pages created so far, to know more about Islam.

Photo: University of Al Qaraouiyine (Wikimedia Commons / Author: Abdel Hassouni)
References:  | 1 |  23 |

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